Tungkol sa Pagkatao ni Grace Poe

Grace Poe-Llamanzares portraitPagsasalin ito ng isang artikulo ni Joe America: http://joeam.com/2015/11/14/leni-robredo-vs-grace-poe/Hindi pulitika ang usapang ito kundi tungkol sa pagkatao.

Sinimulan ito ni Leni Robredo noong sinabi niyang “moral issue” ang citizenship ni Senadora Poe.  Heto ang artikulo ng Inquirer tungkol dito:  “Leni Robredo: Case vs Grace Poe moral issue“.

Mas maganda ito kaysa maraming artikulo ng Inquirer dahil tinatalakay nito ang both sides. Meron pa ngang quotation galing sa spokesman ni Senadora Poe na si Rex Gatchalian:

“Never in her entire life did Poe turn her back on our country. She has always considered the Philippines her home, her domicile and her country.” 

Ako, Amerikano, kaya may problema ako doon, dahil tinalikuran ni Senadora Poe ang United States. Kaya heto ang problema sa pagkatao niya na maliwanag na ipinakita ng kampo niya mismo.

Heto ang ipinanata ni Senador Poe sa kanyang Oath of Allegiance sa Amerika:

“I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty, of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; so help me God.”

Maliwanag ang US Immigration Service tungkol sa ibig sabihin nito:

Ang mga paninindigan na kinakatawanan ng panata ay nakatakda sa Section 337(a) ng Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), na nagsasabing dapat manumpa ang lahat ng aplikante, at ito ang nilalaman ng panunumpang ito:

1. Pagsuporta sa Constitution;

2. Lubos na pagtakwil sa pagiging matapat sa anumang dayuhang pinuno, estado o bansa kung saan dating naging mamamayan o citizen ang aplikante;

3. Suportahan at ipagtanggol ang Constitution at batas ng United States laban sa lahat ng kaaway, banyaga man o nasa loob;

4. Magdala ng buong pananampalataya at katapatan dito at;

A. Humawak ng sandata sa puwersa ng United States kung nakatakda sa batas; o

B. Magsilbi sa United States bilang isang hindi sundalo kung nakatakda sa batas; o

C. Gumawa ng trabahong mahalaga para sa bayan sa pamumunong civilian kung nakatakda sa batas.

Ang tanong ngayon tungkol kay Grace Poe, nagsinungaling ba siya noong isinumpa niya ang Pilipinas? O nagsinungaling ang spokesman noong sinabi niyang home niya palagi ang Pilipinas?

Hindi tahanan sa kahulugang bahay ang pinag-uusapan dito. Tahanan ng puso at kaluluwa ni Senadora Poe ang pinag-uusapan, kanyang katapatan ngayon at kailanman.

Profile photo of Senator Chiz EscuderoAlam ko kung paano minamahalaga ng mag taga-ibang bansa ang kanilang US citizenship. Hindi bola iyong kanilang panunumpa. Lumalaban sila at namamatay sila para makapasok. Isinasalita nila ang panunumpa na iyon at umiiyak sila sa tuwa dahil sa nakamtan nila.

Ano naman ang kahulugan para kay Grace Poe?

“Sinabi ko lang iyon para makapasok?”

Ngayon, anong ibig niyang sabihin sa anumang sabihin niya? Pangagatawanan ba niya, o tsarot lang niya para makalamang siya. Pagkatao niya ang pinag-uusapan. Hindi biro ito.

Kung titignan natin, baka naman laro lang ang kanyang mga ipinapangako sa kampanya. Baka pumuporma lang siyang may nagagawa dahil wala naman halos siyang nagawa hanggang ngayon. Baka puro bola lang siya.

Hindi biro ito, mga kaibigan.

Beterano akong Amerikano sa Vietnam War, ginawa ko ang utos ng bansa sa isang hindi popular na gyera, naiintindihan ko ang sakripisyo na pati buhay itataya mo kung isang citizen ka sa marangal at malalim na kahulugan nito. Milyon-milyon na Amerikano ang sumisilbi sa militar at sandaang mga milyon na Amerikano ang nagbibigay ng pagmamahal sa mga naka-uniporme gawa ng sakripisyo at paninindigan na pinangangatawanan nila. Maraming-maraming mga dating Pilipino na nagsilbi ng marangal at magiting para sa United States. Hindi ako tumingin, pero malamang may mga pangalan na Pilipino sa Vietnam Memorial wall, nakaukit para makita ng lahat… na sineryoso nitong mga Pilipino, na tiyak na nagmamahal sa tinubuan nilang lupa tulad ninyo, ang kanilang matapat na panunumpa sa Amerika.

Iyang panunumpa ay pagpapahayag ng pagiging handang sumakripisyo. Bigyang dangal, mahalin at mamatay man kung kailangan para sa ipiniling bansa.

Pineke lang pala ni Grace Poe?

Tungkol nga ito sa kanyang pagkatao.

Isinulat ni Joe America at isinalin ni Irineo Baginda Rainer Salazar sa ika-14 ng Nobyembre, 2015

Hindi Tiyak na Kinabukasan / Mists of the Future

—-Scroll down for English-— Sa ika-25 ng Abril, 1974, itinanggal ng taongbayan at militar ang diktadurang Salazar sa Portugal. Sa ika-25 ng Pebrero, 1986, tinanggal din ng taongbayan at militar ang diktadurang Marcos. May kahulugan din para sa Pilipino itong kantang “fado novo” na galing sa Portugal. Tungkol ito sa mga hangarin ng taongbayan. At pagbuo ng sambayanan.

Theme song ito ng pelikulang Capitaes de Abril na tungkol sa rebolusyon ng 1974. Isinalin ko sa Pilipino sa ibaba, nasa ibaba iyong Youtube video na may eksena mula sa pelikula ng pakikibaka.

Cory Aquino during a ceremony honoring US Air Force

President Corazon Aquino

Oo, ganyan lumabas ang kamay ko
sa isang katahimikang madilim
at maingat na naglaan ng isang lugar
para sa bulaklak ng tagsibol at lahat

Isang umaga sa Abril
Tumbas sa hangarin ng maraming umaasa
ang isang dakilang pagkilos
saka nang natuklasang unti-unti lang nabubuo
ang kahulugang namamatnubay sa buong sambayanan

At diyan tayo naiwang
nagmumuni-muni
kung may katatagan ang pagkilos na iyon

At diyan tayo naiwan
nag-aalinlangang pumasok
sa isang hindi tiyak na kinabukasan


Noynoy Aquino

President Benigno S. Aguino III

Paano ipababatid ang susunod na maingat na pagkilos
sa ating kalungkutang nakakahina ng loob
sa gabing tahimik at malamig
ng isang bansang tila walang pag-asa?

Kaya ako’y natulog
na may pakiramdam
na nabago natin ang mundo
at magdamagang isinisigaw ng mga tao
ang mas malalim nating pangarap

Sa bandang huli
may isa pang bagong pagsimula
na nag-iwan ng matuwid na patakaran
sa mga pader ng ating mga bayan
nawasak ang mga batas ng kasindakan
at unti-unting naipakita ang daang pupuntahan
naipabatid sa bawat isa ang tinig ng lahat
at ipinakita na ang tinig ng lahat ay tinig din ng bawat isa.


Isa itong kantang fado. Ang ibig sabihin ng fado ay kapalaran. Suko rin sa kapalaran ang mga Portuges noong araw tulad natin.

Mahilig din sila sa paghihiganti. Ito ang teksto ng isang kanta ni Amalia, kilalang kumakanta ng fado noong panahon ni Salazar:

Narinig ko ang tsismis ng mga labandera sa ilog
Na itinataga na raw ng mga tauhan mo
Ang kahoy para sa aking kabaong

Mababayaran mo ang iyong mga bataan
Pero hindi mo mabibili ang buhay mo

Natuto rin sila. Natuto silang gumawa ng sarili nilang kapalaran. Natuto rin silang maging makatarungan, pero hindi mapaghiganti.

Nahirapan din sila pagkatapos ng kanilang rebolusyon. Pero nakuha nila sa sigasig at puspusang pagsisikap ang kanilang hangarin.

Nakahanap sila ng paraang magdalamhati at matuto rito – ang fado ay parang blues, labas ang damdamin para makagaan ang loob.

At ang naglathala ng unang kanta ay si Pedro Ayres Magalhaes. Isang Magellan. Ganyan talaga: Pilipinong kapangalan ng diktador nila.

Isang kantang isinulat ng ka-apelyido ng unang sumalakay sa atin. Sana’y manatili ang demokrasya at tuluyang walang diktadura.


ENGLISH VERSION

TeresaSalgueiro

Teresa Salgueiro, fado novo singer

On April 25, 1974, the people and the military removed the Salazar dictatorship in Portugal.

On February 25, 1986, the people and the military did the same to the Marcos dictatorship.

This “fado novo” song from Portugal also has relevance to Filipinos.

It is about the aspirations of the people. It is about forming a nation. It is the theme song of a movie about the Portuguese people power in 1974.

The English translation is below, the Youtube video showing scenes from this movie of people power is above.

Yes, that’s how my hand
emerged from a deep obscure silence
and carefully saved a place on Earth
for a Spring flower and everything

An April morning
A pure gesture matched
The expectations of a multitude,
Which was placing all their hopes on it,
So as to later find out that the meaning
That leads a whole nation
Takes time to be built

And there we were left
Deeply thinking about whether
That gesture was something secure

And there we were left
With our hesitations
To enter the mists of the future


Cristo Rei e Ponte 25 de Abril

Ponte de 25 de Abril, formerly Ponte Salazar, with Cristo Rei statue

With what word would
the next prudent gesture call
the loneliness in us
Which was driving us to despair
In the middle of the night, cold and still,
In a land without any consolation?

And so I fell asleep
Believing that
We had changed the world.
And late in the night
We could hear the crowd
Screaming our deepest dreams

But furthermore
One more gesture,
Opening doors to a new beginning
Left words of order
Written in the walls of the city
The laws of fear were broken
Bit a bit, It showed to us the way to go
and showed to each one the voice of the whole
And showed that the whole’s voice is the voice of each one


This is a fado song. Fado means fate. Portuguese were fatalistic too before like Filipinos.

They were also vindictive. This is the paraphrased text of a song of Amalia, a famous fado singer from the Salazar period:

I have heard that women washing by the river
Are talking about your men
hacking the wood for my coffin

You can pay your men
But you cannot buy your life

They have learned from experience. To make their own fate which is what fado novo is about. They have learned justice without vindictiveness.

They had a hard time after their revolution as well. But they achieved their aspirations by striving and seeking, finding and not yielding.

They found a way to grieve and learn from grieving – the fado is the blues of a long-suffering people, their way of releasing emotions.

And the composer of the first song is Pedro Ayres Magalhaes. A Magellan. So be it: a Filipino with the surname of a Portuguese dictator.

Brings you a song by a man with the surname of the first to invade us. May democracy survive, and dictatorship remain banished.


Pedro Ayres Magalhães 2005

Pedro Ayres Magalhães, composer and musician

Sim, foi assim que a minha mao
surgiu de entre o silencio obscuro
e com cuidado, guardou lugar
a flor da primavera e a tudo

Manha de Abril
e um gesto puro
coincidiu com a multidao
que tudo esperava e descobriu
que a razao de um povo inteiro
leva tempo a construir

Ficamos nos
so a pensar
se o gesto fora bem seguro

Ficamos nos
a hesitar
por entre as brumas do futuro

A outra accao prudente
que termo dava
a solidao da gente
que desesperava
na calada e fria noite
de uma terra inconsolavel

Adormeci
com a sensacao
que tinhamos mudado o mundo
na madrugada
a multidao
gritava os sonhos mais profundos

Mas alem disso
um outro breve inicio
deixou palavras de ordem
nos muros da cidade
quebrando as leis do medo
foi mostrando os caminhos
e a cada um a voz
que a voz de cada era
a sua voz
a sua voz

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, November 7, 2015.

The Chinese challenge

Just a few days ago, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in the Hague decided that it has jurisdiction over the filing of a case based on the UNCLOS by the Philippines in the matter of the islands known by different names in the sea known by different names: http://news.yahoo.com/hague-court-agrees-south-china-sea-row-172054472.html. More clippings on this may be found in the Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/filipinogermanlearning. This article is to give a broader context to the issue and help understand what China is about today.

Shipping routes

Global shipping routes

The Philippine situation

http://filipinogerman.blogsport.eu/the-island-issue/ already is about the island situation in the sea between Vietnam and the Philippines: Vietnam and the Philippines are planning to cooperate in this area against China, which is taking one island after the other. But the situation is more complex, I shall explain why shortly.

What did others want before?

The Philippines became an object of international politics because of the sea routes that intersect in front of its shores: http://filipinogerman.blogsport.eu/philippine-history-part-i-territory details this. Spain wanted the spice trade of the Portuguese and ended up with the galleon trade. The Iberians built up a global trading network.

America wanted to join the Asian trade, which was why they invaded the Philippines. This is detailed in this article: http://filipinogerman.blogsport.eu/philippine-history-part-ii-state-section-1/. America then had the Manifest Destiny doctrine as their political bible, the Monroe doctrine having been their assertion of control over the American continent.

What does China want now?

Now China is taking island after island, but what do they want, long-term, globally and locally? This has to be looked at, since Sun Tzu says in his Art of War:

He who knows oneself and knows his enemy cannot be defeated in a hundred battles.

The Chinese situation

Illusions and humilation

The Chinese used to see the whole world as tributary to them, and their own empire as “All Under Heaven”. People who came to trade were defined as “giving tribute”.

These illusions were shattered by the following:

1) Decadence under the Manchus – not real Chinese, in fact they forced their Chinese subjects to wear pigtails as a sign of being subjects.

2) major inflation caused in 1750 because the Empire was flooded by silver from the galleon trade with the Spanish. Too much of any currency in relation to production causes inflation, and the de facto currency in China was Mexican silver pesos. Until then, China had been Number one in the world not politically, but economically. Many inventions came from China.

3) In that economic and moral crisis, many Chinese resorted to opium, shipped by mainly Scottish smugglers. Attempts by the Chinese to stop them were answered by the Opium Wars.

4) China was finally occupied in parts by 8 powers – European powers, USA, Japan. The Boxer Rebellion was an uprising against these powers, with Chinese martial arts involved.

5) Annexation of Manchuria by the Japanese, the World War 2 with atrocities such as the Rape of Nanking.

The subsequent conflict between Communists and Nationalists caused more blood to flow, Communist rule as well with its brutal reorganization of Chinese society.

Recovery and revanchism

Hopes of Chinese liberalization under Deng Xiao Ping were dashed by the Tiananmen Square Massacre. Yet effective transition to turbocapitalism under a nominally Communist government brought economic progress which is the backbone of China’s resurgent political and military power. Rhetoric and actions from China amount to an ideology of revanchism for past humiliations.

The Chinese obviously want the Iberian, later British Empire trading routes of old AND the Silk Road: http://www.defenseone.com/politics/2015/06/how-china-building-biggest-commercial-military-empire-history/114853/. Harbors in Sri Lanka and Mozambique, natural resources interests in Africa, planned Nicaragua canal. Locally, they may want to control:

Nanyang (Chinese: 南洋; pinyin: nányáng; literally: “Southern Ocean”) is the Chinese name for the warmer and fertile geographical region south of China, otherwise known as the ‘South Sea’ or Southeast Asia.[1] The term came into common usage in self-reference to the large ethnic Chinese migrant population in Southeast Asia, and is contrasted with Xiyang (西洋; Western Ocean), which refers to the Western world, and Dongyang (東洋; Eastern Ocean), which refers to Japan.

There are indications that Malaysia is close to becoming a Chinese client state. If China manages to make the Philippines into a client state, Vietnam will be isolated and China can squeeze them eventually. Southeast Asia could become like Eastern Europe before, when it was ruled by the Russians. Not a pleasant prospect.

PLANS Liaoning (CV-16)

Aircraft carrier Varyag passing the Bosporus

China bought the Varyag aircraft carrier from the Ukraine indirectly, via a “travel agency” that said it would make a floating casino out of it, completely unarmed. Now the totally armed and refurbished former Varyag is in the Mediterreanean Sea, helping the Russians in Syria:  http://www.debka.com/article/24909/A-Chinese-aircraft-carrier-docks-at-Tartus-to-support-Russian-Iranian-military-buildup-.

And thereby practicing aircraft carrier skills which they need to project seaborne power. They are also building their own aircraft carriers now. The have intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBM) with conventional warheads that could hit Southeast Asian cities. Chinese hardliners may want to get back the rule it imagined it had for millenia – ruling the world and “Nanyang”.

Other players involved

The overseas Chinese

Most overseas Chinese are Cantonese and Fujianese, who speak a very different dialect from the Northern Chinese. China’s economic boom after Deng Xiaoping was mostly driven by the more enterpreneurial Southern Chinese, while the present ideology that drives China is ultranationalism coming from the Communist Party. Northern and Southern China are very different, Peking is in the North.

Those who traded with Spain in Manila and came to form the bulk of the Filipino-Chinese or Chinoy population were considered pirates – the Manchu dynasty did not want foreign trade and forbade leaving shore. The only ones the Chinese officially traded with where the Portuguese in Macau – just like the Japanese traded with Portuguese “black ships” in Nagasaki. They were exclusive mercantilist partnerships. Many of the overseas Chinese do not identify with China, some still do inspite of ideological differences. Filipino-Chinese are mostly assimilated into society.

Turkics and Mongolia

Map of independent Turkic countries.

Independent Turkic countries

In case China wants to control Eurasia and the old Silk Road with Russia, the Turkic nations might give resistance. Turkey is massively helping its brothers in Asia, where the original Ottomans came from. Turkic languages are very similar and it is easy for for someone with his mother tongue in that language to learn another. The Uigurs in Xinjiang are also Turkic and are not treated well by China. Sympathy for them may prevail. Also, Turkey is a member of NATO and militarily strong.

The Mongols are related to Turkics, are in between Russia and China, but have been doing business with the USA lately. They used to rule vast areas of Eurasia. They are known to sleep for centuries, but when they unleash their fury they are like volcanos that sleep for long. This could be a geopolitical Pinatubo waiting to happen. More here: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonathanmiller/2012/09/14/mongolias-security-dilemma/

The United States

America has changed from the times of Manifest Destiny. Great powers that get humiliated may learn and become more human. America in 1898 was racist and imperialist, much like China today. Spain in 1521 was inhuman as well.  But the United States witnessed two humiliations that would cause great soul-searching. The Vietnam war, and the recent wars of George W. Bush. America is learning, in fact they now have Foreign Area Officers to understand the countries better they are dealing with. America often bumbled when it came to culture, besides they are overextended.

Philippine strategic options

US Aircraft Carrier Pearl Harbor (7733393760)

US aircraft carrier Pearl Harbor

Define Philippine national interests FIRST

The Philippines is usually very self-centered in the wrong way, hardly aware of what is going on around it. Self-centered should be different in the sense of knowing one’s own place in the world, one’s culture, one’s history and from that finally one’s destiny: http://filipinogerman.blogsport.eu/philippine-foreign-relations/. Only a tree with deep roots can grow to be tall. Does the Philippines want to be an object of other’s interest, or define it’s own. What are it’s true values – just to get by as comfortably as possible, and parrot whatever the next colonizer says? Spain a hundred years ago, America effectively until the early 1990s, China next?

I think the Philippines and the USA have more in common in terms of values than the Philippines and China. For this reason, the Philippines will not want to be under Chinese control. Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War 2 was terrible for Filipinos – Chinese occupation or even just being a vassal state would be similarly bad if not even worse.

Age of Relationships, not Empires

This article says it all: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2004/03/the-man-who-would-be-khan/302899/

The morning I arrived at the American embassy in Ulan Bator, Wilhelm, newly promoted to colonel, greeted me wearing a gray suit, a white shirt, a tie, and suspenders. Born in 1959, raised in Orlando, Florida, and given formative military training at West Point and the Army Ranger school, in Fort Benning, Georgia, Wilhelm had risen through the ranks of the military as the Cold War order was falling apart. On the ground in several theaters of military operation, he had witnessed the messy collapse of communism in Eurasia. Known to warlords in Bosnia as “Mean Mr. Tom,” and to colleagues in Tajikistan as “Aga Tom,” he became the ultimate area expert on the former Soviet empire and its shadow zones, from Yugoslavia all the way to Mongolia.

Wilhelm’s plans for the morning I arrived were typical in their variety: he had to deliver personal thanks to the parents of a Mongolian-born U.S. Marine fighting in Basra, Iraq; he had to plan for a visit of the chief of the Mongolian military, Major General Tsevegsuren Togoo, to Washington; and he had to make arrangements for a visit by fourteen American brigadier generals. Also due to arrive was Lieutenant General Wallace Gregson, then the commander of the Third Marine Expeditionary Force (“III MEF” as it’s written, and “Three MEF” as it’s spoken). That last visit was the most important: if there were ever a land war in Asia—on the Korean Peninsula, for example—III MEF would play a role just as prominent as that played during the invasion of Iraq by I MEF, which marched from Kuwait to Baghdad.

… The statue had begun to flake and crumble, but its size and substance meant that it might well be around forever, like the abandoned statue in Shelley’s “Ozymandias.” It brought to mind ideas not just of brutality and domination but also of cheapness. “Everything the Soviets built looks like it was constructed by a high school shop class,” Wilhelm said, laughing.
“We should be careful of our own ambitions,” I said. “We don’t want to end up like the Soviets.”… “There is nothing we need to build here,” he answered, “except relationships.”

China pretends it is building relationships, but wants a global trading empire. The USA may be closer the new mindset, even if there are definitely still old-school hawks.

President Benigno S. Aquino III

President Aquino

Short term perspectives

President Benigno Aquino III is following a three-pronged strategy:

  1. cooperation with the United States via EDCA.
  2. filing of a case based on the UNCLOS.
  3. Cooperation with Vietnam.

Multilateral initiatives together with Korea and Japan might be complementary. It is a strategy based on using international law and avoiding all provocations while having the USA as a partner in the background – without being totally dependent, as evidenced by the cooperation with Vietnam.

Medium term possibilities

In the next 10 years, the following could be done to improve the situation further:

  1. Build Philippine defense capabilities, especially naval and air force. Concentrate on true deterrence and not expensive purchases.
  2. Look for more possible allies: Indonesia, Thailand, maybe even India which treats its neighbors like China does, but is a rival of China.

Long term visions

Maritime awareness was mentioned by retired Commodore Plaridel Garcia as an important mindset for the Philippines. A long-term vision would be to make the Philippines a true thalassocracy, like the Visayans had in the old days, like the Kingdom of Tondo – or like the Delian thalassocracy in ancient Greece. It could be a very good and powerful partner of the USA, like Turkey is in its region. It may lead in the long run to China becoming more a normal partner in international relations. Russia was on its way to that, but is unfortunately back in the Age of Empires, mentally.

Political consequences

There was a Native American tribe, I read somewhere, that had this rule for its chiefs and elders:

Consider the next seven generations for every decision you make.

Filipino voters will have to ask their future leaders where they want to lead them, and how they want to do this.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 31. October 2015

P.S. Thanks to many contributors at the Society of Honor joeam.com – Joe America, LCPL_X, Karl Garcia – and the Chinese trolls who were the grain of sand that is at the core of every pearl.

P.P.S. The relationship to the USA must be managed carefully because it depends on the President in power. Donald Trump may be at best an American Berlusconi, at worst a US-style Putin.

Recommended reading regarding the US and the Philippines: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/richard-javad-heydarian/the-philippines-and-ameri_b_8382080.html – thanks Joe America.

 

Ang Saligan ng Batas

Paumanhin

Hihingi muna ako ng tawad sa aking ama pagkat inaangkin ko iyong titulo ng kanyang artikulo noong panahon ng 1970s Constitutional Convention. Lalong humihingi ako ng tawad dahil hindi ko binasa iyong artikulong iyon dahil tinatamad ako. O ngayon, alam na ninyo na kahit may pagka-dalubhasa ito, huwag na huwag ninyong seryosohin lahat. Pagkat hindi ako Propesor tulad ni Tatay, hindi ako Dr. tulad nang kapatid ko, sa aming tatlo ako ang parang dropout. Isang Erap na intelektuwal na walang ginawa kundi magbulakbol, Erap para sa mahirap umintindi..


1987 Constitution reviewerAno ba ang pinag-uusapan natin?

Bakit ba tayo may CONSTITUTION? Ano ba iyan? Saligang Batas ang tawag sa Pilipino. Saligan? Ang lalim na salita huhukayin mo pa. Ang Saligan ay Pundasyon. O iyan, pundasyon ng mga batas. Ano naman ang konstitusyon? Iyong kabaligtaran ng diarrhea? Hindi ah! Itanong natin kay Joe, ating titser na Kano:

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/constitution – these are possible definitions of the word constitution:

  1. the system of fundamental principles according to which a nation, state, corporation, or the like, is governed. Anong prinsipyo? puro tayo lusot-lusot…
  2. the document embodying these principles. sa dokumento, sa technicality, magaling tayo!
  3. (initial capital letter) Constitution of the United States. di natin kailangan iyan, may sariling atin tayo!
  4. the way in which a thing is composed or made up; makeup; composition: the chemical constitution of the cleanser. magaling tayong mag-makeup, itago ang squatter di ba..
  5. the physical character of the body as to strength, health, etc.: He has a strong constitution. matatag ba ang estado natin? Ewan…
  6. Medicine/Medical, Psychology. the aggregate of a person’s physical and psychological characteristics. Kung tulad ni Brenda ang estado natin, patay tayo.

Nasaan tayo ngayon?

http://www.gov.ph/constitutions/1987-constitution/#preamble – heto ang Preamble ng Constitution natin:

We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

wow, ang gandang pakingan! Pero simulan na natin sa “just” – hindi iyong just-just na babae, huwag madumi ang mga isip ninyo. Ang “just” ay makatarungan. Makatarungan ba ang Pilipinas? Ang susunod, “humane” o makatao. Makatao ba ang Pilipinas? Apat na milyon daw ang nakatira sa slum area ng Metro Manila sa nabasa ko. Onse milyon ang buong populasyon. Ibig sabihin, sa bawat tatlong tao sa Metro Manila, isa iskwater. Huwag nang pagandahin na urban poor – kawawang iskwater talaga. Pero huwag kayong umasang umupo sa isang meeting room sa Makati o sa Bonifacio Global City at mag-count-off: Reyes, Santos, Garcia – Garcia pangatlo ka jologs ka. Hindi ganyang kadali. Kahit bayaning pang-manggagawa daw si Bonifacio, may pagkasosyal noong araw iyong trabaho niya. Sa isang kumpanyang Aleman siya nagtatrabaho. Kaya medyo sosyal din siya, kasing sosyal ng mga call center worker ngayon. Mga maingay magsalita sa Istarbak…


Magbiyahe muna tayo!

Nasaan na ba ako… kung sa simula pa lang, hindi natin isinasagawa ang Constitution natin, paano ito magiging Saligang Batas – o Pundasyon ng lahat ng mga batas natin? Nagtatataka pa ba tayo na hindi tayo sumusunod sa batas, kung mali ang pundasyon ng mga batas natin. Ano kaya ang solusyon para rito? Tumingin tayo sa ibang bansa, tapos balik tayong Pinas. Parang OFW…

Gessler und TellSa Switzerland muna tayo. Naku malamig. Pero marami daw Pilipino sa Geneva doon sa UN. Hindi tayo doon pupunta. Doon tayo pupunta sa lugar ni Wilhelm Tell. Sino iyon? Isinalin ni Rizal ang Wilhelm Tell sa Tagalog pero hindi ko rin nabasa. Tamad talaga. Pero gawa nang nasa Alemanya ako, ako na ang gumawa ng sariling pagsasalin. Patawad po Dr. Jose Rizal, hindi ko uulitin:

Ninanais nating maging sambayanan ng magkakapatid
Na hindi magkakahiwalay ni sa panganib ni sa kasawian

Ninanais nating maging malaya, tulad ng ating mga ninuno
At mas ninanais nating mamatay kaysa mabuhay bilang alipin

Ninanais nating magtiwala sa kataastaasang Panginoon
at kahit kailan hindi magpapasindak sa kapangyarihan ng tao

Aba astig pakingan! Ano iyan? Panata ng mga Swiss matapos na patayin ang kanilang mga mang-aapi. Pinana ni Tell si Gessler. Parang NPA yata. Pero hindi rin. Dahil iyong tatlong tribong nagpanata ang nagsimula sa Switzerland. 700 na mahigit na taon nang isang sambayanan. Panatang wagas, parang Lord of the Rings.


AtatürkDalawang oras mahigit ang biyahe papuntang Turkey. Bisitahin natin si Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Ama ng mga Turko.

Anim na pana ang tawag sa kanyang pananaw na para sa Estado. Hanggang ngayon itinuturo sa mga eskuwela:

Republikanismo – republikang demokratika at sibiko
Populismo – pagsisilbi sa tao ang higit sa lahat
Laisismo – walang pakialam ang iglesia sa estado
Reformismo – unti-unting pagpapabuti sa sistema
Nasyonalismo – malaya ang bansa
Estadismo – estado ang tumutulak sa pag-unlad

Aba para yatang Marcos ito. Mali! Si Atatürk, disiplinado. Hindi nagdiktadura. Kahit militar siya. Hindi nangurakot. Kahit babaero siya.


President Manuel Quezon - source: Wikimedia CommonsBalik tayong Pilipinas. Sa Quezon City. Bakit doon ang tagal sa trapik? Kasi pupunta tayong Quezon Memorial. Para maalala natin si Quezon na babaero din.

Siya ang masasabing nagtayo ng estadong Pilipino. Pati 1935 Constitution masasabing responsibilidad niya. Pati COMELEC nagsimula noong panahon niya.

Binago rin ang Constitution para puwede siyang tumakbo nang pangalawang beses. Cha-Cha pala noong araw pa. Hindi pa Mambo Magsaysay 1950s iyon.

Pero meron din siyang ipinalabas na Code of Ethics. Walang kinalaman sa Mathematics. Asal ang pinag-uusapan: http://malacanang.gov.ph/4376-the-code-of-ethics/

Aba nasa webpage pa ng Palasyo. Di napakaganda na siguro ng asal nating lahat? Pero nakalimutan yatang ituro sa mga eskuwela.

Hindi rin orig na gawa ni Quezon ito, cover version lang ng Dekalogo ni Mabini. Na siguradong hindi marunong mag-Cha-Cha o mag-Mambo.

http://tagaloglang.com/The-Philippines/History/ang-dekalogo-ni-apolinario-mabini.html Tignan natin kung ano ang nasa Dekalogo:

Ibigin mo si Bathalà at ang iyóng̃ kapurihán nang higít sa lahát ng̃ bagay.Apolinario mabini PG

Sambahín mo si Bathalà, nang ukol sa lalong̃ minamatuwíd at minamarangal ng̃ iyong̃ budhî.

Palusugín mo ang mg̃a piling̃ kayamanan na ipinagkaloób sa iyó ni Bathalà.

Ibigin mo ang iyóng̃ bayan ng̃ sunód kay Bathalà, sa iyóng̃ kapurihán, at higit sa iyóng̃ sarili.

Pagpumilitan mo ang ikagiginhawa ng̃ iyóng̃ bayan bago ang kaginhawahan mong̃ sarili.

Pagpilitan mo ang pagsasarilí ng̃ iyóng̃ bayan.

Leni RobredoHuwag mong̃ kilalanin sa iyóng̃ bayan ang kapangyarihan nino mang tao na dî mo pilì at ng̃ iyóng̃ mg̃a kababayan.

Pagpilitan mo na ang iyóng̃ bayan ay magíng̃ isáng̃ República at huwág mong̃ tulutan kailán mang magíng̃ Monarquia.

Ibigin mo ang kapwà nang gaya ng̃ pagibig mo sa sarili.

Laging̃ titignán mo ang kababayan ng̃ higit ng̃ kauntî sa iyóng̃ kápuwá.

Aba, lumang Tagalog, pero hindi naman mahirap maintindihan.

Iyong Facebook Page naman ng Atty. Leni Gerona-Robredo for Vice President Movement: https://www.facebook.com/groups/741505089197809/?fref=ts, ang ganda ng motto, sinabi ni Leni at halos kasing ganda niya: Go to the people. Learn from them. Love them. Start with what they know. Build with what they have. But with the best leaders, when the work is done, the task accomplished, the people will say “We have done this ourselves”.


Anong gagawin ngayon? Sinong gagawa?

Sa tao dapat manggaling ang panata ng bayan, ang pundasyon o saligan ng republika. Kung naituro siguro sa lahat ng tao ang talagang ibig sabihin ng 1987 Constitution, naisaloob na nila sa halos 30 na taon, isang henerasyon. Pero hindi pa yata, dahil Preamble simula pa lang wala sa realidad ngayon. Hindi ibig sabihin na gigibain natin ang banal na Konstitusyon ng 1987. Kilala ng Nanay ko si Father Bernas na isa sa mga nagkontribusyon. Matalinong Jesuit. Hindi Padre Damaso, hindi talaga. Pero ano ngayon ang gagawin natin?

Ewan ko ba sa inyo. Hindi naman na ako sa Pilipinas nakatira. Bahala kayo, dahil kayo ang dapat mag-isip-isip tungkol diyan. Kayo ang nasa iisang barko, iisang tahanan ng sambayanan. Anong mga paninindigan ang mahalaga para maayos ang pakikisama ninyo sa isa’t-isa sa loob ng barko o tahanan? Ano ang dapat tuparin ng bawat isa para malinis ang mga pinggan, may madadaanan papuntang banyo at kubeta, walang basura na kung saan-saan? Pareho-pareho ba ang magiging karapatan, o iba ang karapatan ng mga katulong at sikyo? Kayo ang bahala.

Sa taas, may mga prinsipyo na makukuha sa panata ng mga Swiss, sa anim na pana ni Atatürk, sa Dekalogo ni Mabini. Tignan din ninyo ang 1987 Constitution, pero sa totoo lang, hindi ko rin iyan nabasa dahil ang haba talaga. Mabuti pa iyong Swiss Constitution, madaling basahin kahit ngayong moderno na. Pero ang ugat pa rin niya, panata ng tatlong tribo na nagrebelde sa kabundukan. Hindi sila Balweg ang pinag-uusapan dito kundi si Wilhelm Tell. Kaya pag-isipan muna kung ano ang mahalaga sa una. Puwede kayong magproposal dito. Kung may tanong kayo, sasagutin ko.

Irineo B. R. Salazar

25. October 2015, München

 

Reconstitute the Philippines!

A. Present State

Bad Sanitation in Intramuros, Manila Philippines (3486250812)The Philippines is built on a colonial foundation – that of the principalia who got to rule the country. These were the datus that collaborated with the Spaniards to become the ruling class.

I must thank contributor Renato Mariano Pacifico of Joe America’s Society of Honor for this statement that set the ball rolling to a discussion with Society of Honor contributors giancarloangulo, Juana Pilipinas and Karl Garcia, as well as a final exchange with Joe America that led to me writing this article as the summary of collectively inspired thinking:

“Just look around us … From PDAF Babuyan Island to Muslim jolo …. half-naked children walking the streets dumpster diving for morsels of Jollibee.” http://joeam.com/2015/10/20/the-dna-of-honor-for-the-comelec-another-mar-roxas-legacy/#comment-142094

Now how can a state call itself modern and humane if that is the way it is constituted – the word “constitution” means exactly that as well! A Constitution not really applied is just paper.

http://www.gov.ph/constitutions/1987-constitution/#preamble – now where are the principles of this constitution truly lived, with so many people living worse than dogs in the country:

We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

Where is the Philippines a just and humane society? Where does it promote the common good? Where does it conserve and develop its patrimony? Of what use is a constitution, which should be the foundation of how a state really IS, if it is just on paper? Like many things in the Philippines.

A.1. Definition of Terms

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/constitution – these are possible definitions of the word constitution:

  1. the system of fundamental principles according to which a nation, state, corporation, or the like, is governed.
  2. the document embodying these principles.
  3. (initial capital letter) Constitution of the United States.
  4. the way in which a thing is composed or made up; makeup; composition: the chemical constitution of the cleanser.
  5. the physical character of the body as to strength, health, etc.: He has a strong constitution.
  6. Medicine/Medical, Psychology. the aggregate of a person’s physical and psychological characteristics.

Now let us see how these definitions are applicable to the present Philippines, by means of a story.

A.1.1. Pedro and Joe

There is the old series of jokes about Joe, the American, and Pedro, the Filipino. Joe tries to teach the Filipino to pronounce apple and Pedro says epol. Let us have them talk about the Constitution, which after all is a legacy of American thinking, lost in translation. Joe is a very patient Thomasite teacher:

History of the United States from the earliest discovery of America to the present time (1912) (14580116157)Joe: Good morning Pedro. Let us look at the dictionary to see what constitution means. No 2.: yes, the 1987 Constitution is a piece of paper, correct Pedro, very good…

Pedro: Good morning Sir. I was very diligent in fulfilling your assignment. Thank you very much.

Joe: No. 1.: IS governed. No Pedro. You do not apply your Constitution. It is the system according which your state IS SUPPOSED to be governed, but not HOW you govern it.

Pedro: Sorry po Joe, I will improve my lesson the next time.

Joe: No 3. Definitely not.

Pedro: That is your American Constitution. We have ours.

Joe: No 4. Is your state made up the way your Constitution describes it? I don’t think so.

Pedro is silent.

Joe: No 5. Is the body of your state as strong and healthy as that paper describes?

Pedro: Yes Sir, I will take you to The Fort and to Forbes Park, it is clean there.

Joe: No 6.: Are the physical and psychological characteristics of your state really like that?

Pedro: Very healthy in body and mind Sir, just like Senator Miriam Santiago.

Joe: Go home, Pedro. Good we did not make you a State of the Union.

Pedro goes home, making kamot-kamot – scratching his head and thinking: I don’t care even if I am not real State, I can always buy Real Estate in Makati!

A.2. True Philippine ConstitutionEmilio Aguinaldo (ca. 1898)

The true State of the Philippine nation’s foundations, which is what Constitution should be, are the following if one is realistic and looks at the dirty kitchen, not the clean one to show guests:

PREAMBLE: We, the entitled of the Philippines, have for centuries run an unjust and inhuman society. We have decided to drop all pretenses and hypocrisy, and by virtue of our own Entitlement, we hereby promulgate the True Constitution of the Philippines:

Article 1. Laws only apply to ordinary people and to our political enemies, not to us.

Article 2. Those who support us will be given food and drinks, and smiled upon.

Article 3. Those who do not know who we are shall be punished arbitrarily.

Article 4. Business opportunities are for us and our own group, not for ordinary people.

Article 5. Ordinary people and our political enemies are suspect, we are beyond doubt.

This constitution is binding upon all matters in the Philippines, and is above the written law we have pretended to follow for all these centuries.

This constitution is valid for all time and may not be amended.


B. Possible Solutions

B.1. Rütli Oath of Wilhelm Tell

Gessler und TellThe legendary Rütli oath of Wilhelm Tell was the foundation of the Swiss state in the Middle Ages – after freeing themselves from oppressive overlords embodied by Gessler: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C3%BCtlischwur:

We want to be a single People of brethren,

Never to part in danger nor distress.

We want to be free, as our fathers were,

And rather die than live in slavery.

We want to trust in the one highest God

And never be afraid of human power.

Jose Rizal translated Wilhelm Tell into Tagalog, but few Filipinos know of this. Rizal is not seen as a revolutionary. But maybe he knew that most revolutions fail. The three original cantons of Switzerland were like Kankanai, Bontoc and Ifugao people of the Cordillera making a tribal alliance against oppressors from the lowlands, and swearing to defend each other to the death – it is very respectable that this oath is the foundation of a seven century old federal state.

B.2. Six Arrows of Kemal AtatürkAtatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern Turkey, defined the Six Arrows upon which the modern Turkish state is based – modernizing a feudal, clannish and highly religious society with various ethnic groups into one strong nation and reliable NATO partner: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kemalism#Fundamentals

Republicanism – a democratic republic built on civic virtue

Populism – serving the people is paramount

Laicism – the state is free of all religion

Reformism – the state is to be constantly improved

Nationalism – the nation is to be fully independent

Statism – the state is the driver of progress

These tenets are taught in all Turkish schools until today. Unlike President Ferdinand Marcos, Atatürk had the self-discipline to live by these principles and not succumb to the temptations of power and hypocrisy – do as I say and not as I do. This did not prevent him from being a womanizer just like President Quezon was – and Jose Rizal.

B.3. Filipino role models

President Manuel Quezon - source: Wikimedia CommonsPresident Manuel Quezon was the closest the Philippines had to an Atatürk. There shall be a biography of him in this blog at some point. The foundations of the Filipino state were laid by him. His 1939 Code of Citizenship and Ethics http://joeam.com/2015/10/06/president-quezons-1939-code-of-citizenship-and-ethics-and-the-philippines-today/ tried to build a moral foundation, a common set of values for Filipinos, but its spirit was lost.

It was based on the Decalogue of Apolinario Mabini: http://tagaloglang.com/The-Philippines/History/true-decalogue-apolinario-mabini.html

First. Thou shalt love God and thy honor above all things: God as the fountain of all truth, of all justice and of all activity; and thy honor, the only power which will oblige thee to be faithful, just and industrious.

Second. Thou shalt worship God in the form which thy conscience may deem most righteous and worthy: for in thy conscience, which condemns thy evil deeds and praises thy good ones, speaks thy God.

Third. Thou shalt cultivate the special gifts which God has granted thee, working and studying according to thy ability, never leaving the path of righteousness and justice, in order to attain thy own perfection, by means whereof thou shalt contribute to the progress of humanity; thus; thou shalt fulfill the mission to which God has appointed thee in this life and by so doing, thou shalt be honored, and being honored, thou shalt glorify thy God.

Apolinario mabini PGFourth. Thou shalt love thy country after God and thy honor and more than thyself: for she is the only Paradise which God has given thee in this life, the only patrimony of thy race, the only inheritance of thy ancestors and the only hope of thy posterity; because of her, thou hast life, love and interests, happiness, honor and God.

Fifth. Thou shalt strive for the happiness of thy country before thy own, making of her the kingdom of reason, of justice and of labor: for if she be happy, thou, together with thy family, shalt likewise be happy.

Sixth. Thou shalt strive for the independence of thy country: for only thou canst have any real interest in her advancement and exaltation, because her independence constitutes thy own liberty; her advancement, thy perfection; and her exaltation, thy own glory and immortality.

Seventh. Thou shalt not recognize in thy country the authority of any person who has not been elected by thee and thy countrymen; for authority emanates from God, and as God speaks in the conscience of every man, the person designated and proclaimed by the conscience of a whole people is the only one who can use true authority.

Leni RobredoEighth. Thou shalt strive for a Republic and never for a monarchy in thy country: for the latter exalts one or several families and founds a dynasty; the former makes a people noble and worthy through reason, great through liberty, and prosperous and brilliant through labor.

Ninth. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself: for God has imposed upon him, as well as upon thee, the obligation to help thee and not to do unto thee what he would not have thee do unto him; but if thy neighbor, failing in this sacred duty, attempt against thy life, thy liberty and thy interests, then thou shalt destroy and annihilate him for the supreme law of self-preservation prevails.

Tenth. Thou shalt consider thy countryman more than thy neighbor; thou shalt see him thy friend, thy brother or at least thy comrade, with whom thou art bound by one fate, by the same joys and sorrows and by common aspirations and interests.

Therefore, as long as national frontiers subsist, raised and maintained by the selfishness of race and of family, with thy countryman alone shalt thou unite in a perfect solidarity of purpose and interest, in order to have force, not only to resist the common enemy but also to attain all the aims of human life.

Leni Robredo, from what I have seen so far from her works in Camarines Sur, already lives by principles that really involve the Filipino people, to empower and free them by sustainable, hard work. The Facebook page of the Atty. Leni Gerona-Robredo for Vice President Movement states: https://www.facebook.com/groups/741505089197809/?fref=ts

Go to the people. Learn from them. Love them. Start with what they know. Build with what they have. But with the best leaders, when the work is done, the task accomplished, the people will say “We have done this ourselves”.


C. Rebuilding foundations

The foundations of the national house need to be rebuilt. The foundation of centuries of oppression is completely rotten. But a revolution will not work – from the center or from the bottom. The residents of the national house must have a shelter when storms come. This is why evolution is the way, and only can work if there is a consensus on how to…

C.1. Reconstitute the Philippines

A liberation constitution could look like this, replacing the “True Constitution” described above, and thereby giving the impulse to reconstitute and rebuild the country:

PREAMBLE. We, the people of the Islands called the Philippines, of all racial and cultural mixtures, of all religions, income groups and educational attainments, strive to make our lives better after centuries of oppressing each other. This is the Constitution by which we shall live every aspect of our lives from this point onward, and make sure each and every one of us, from now on to be called Free Filipinos, lives by from this day:

Article 1: We shall be honorable, humble and kind in all our dealings towards other human beings.

Article 2: We shall adhere to the laws we have pretended to live by from now on, and adjust these laws in order to make our society as free, humane and just as possible. We shall make sure that these laws are followed by each and every one of us as legal equals.

Article 3: We shall work to make our country, the Free Philippines, free of hunger, fear and unrest. We shall strive to give opportunities to all willing to work for them.

Article 4: We shall make sure that we think about what we are doing, and promote thinking instead of unreflected belief. Religion and conviction is each person’s private matter.

Article 5: We shall build a state that reflects the principles of this Constitution. In the meantime, we shall support the state that we already have, and rebuild it step by step.

This Constitution may be extended by the will of 2/3 majority of the Free Filipino people. The first five articles are valid for all time and shall never be amended.

May the aspirations embodied in this Constitution give us the strength to fullfill it.

C.2. Commitment, Continuity, Consistency

This is but a humble proposal, my submission to the Filipino people. It is they who must find their common oath. Because it is they who must commit to it. Nag-iisang panata. Pinangangatawanan.

Continuity and consistency is needed to fullfill its aspirations, in patient perseverance. Like the Swiss for 700+ years. Like Mustafa Kemal. Like Manuel Quezon. Like Mabini. Like Leni Robredo.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 22. October 2015

P.S. this article also challenged my mind, I give credit to it as well: http://getrealphilippines.com/blog/2015/10/filipinos-rotten-politics-mirror-their-inability-to-look-forward/ – yes the Philippines lacks the capability to look forward, visions if ever are only unconsciously implemented but never truly defined. Because the basic tenets of what the country IS and where it wants to go to are not even properly defined as a true commitment people buy into. Because the stuff we have was imposed on us, colonially.

Filipinos have to define the basics first, then fix things from there. Where I disagree with you, benign0, is that we who live abroad have the right to tell the folks back home, the stakeholders, how to do it. We can only help them, mocking them but not giving them any solutions but basking in superiority is not the right way to go I think. If they are hopeless why rant about them?

P.P.S. another thing I see as important is to educate all Filipinos on the important aspects of the 1987 Constitution to increase acceptance. On that basis, reform things later.

 

Sun Tzu in Filipino Chapter 13

Paggamit ng Espiya

William Joseph Donovan, OSS

Heneral Donovan, CIA

1. Sabi ni Sun Tzu: malaki ang gastos para sa Estado, at malaki ang nawawala sa taongbayan sa pagtayo ng isang puwersa ng isangdaanglibong katao at ang pagmartsa sa kanila nang malayo. Iilang libong onsa na pilak ang gagastusin araw-araw. Magkakagulo sa loob at labas ng bayan, at maraming konsumidong hihimatayin sa kalye. Iilang daang libong pamilyang mahahadlangan sa kanilang hanapbuhay.

2. Maaring iilang taong magkakaharap ang dalawang puwersang magkakaaway na kapwang nagsusumikap manalo, pero sa isang araw lang ito makakamtan. Dahil ganoon, hindi makatao ang maging ignorante sa kalagayan ng kaaway dahil sa ayaw lang gumastos ng sandaang unsa na pilak bilang bayad sa espiya.

3. Ang gumagawa ng ganoon, hindi heneral, inutil sa kanyang pinuno, at hindi marunong manalo.

4. Kaya ang mauna sa nalalaman ang nagbibigay ng kakayahan sa tusong pinuno at mabuting heneral upang matamaan at masagupa ang kaaway.

5. Hindi makukuha itong nalalaman sa panghuhula; hindi rin ito maibabase sa experiyensiya o sa anumang kalkulasyon.

6.  Sa ibang tao mo lang malalaman ang disposisyon ng kaaway.

7.  Kaya gumagamit tayo ng espiya, na may limang uring natatangi: (1) espiyang pampook; (2) espiyang tagaloob; (3) espiyang ibinaligtad (4) espiyang patay; (5) espiyang buhay.

8. Kapag umiiral itong limang uri ng espiya, walang makakatuklas sa sekretong sistema. Heto ang itinatawag na mahiwagang pagpapatakbo at pagiimpluwensiya. Heto ang pinakamahalagang kakayahan ng isang pinuno.

9. Ang mga espiyang pampook, galing sa mga nakatira sa isang teritoryo.

10. Ang mga espiyang tagaloob, galing sa mga opisyal ng kalaban.

11. Ang mga espiyang ibinaligtad, galing sa mga espiya ng kalaban na nadakip at naibaligtad para pakinabangan.

12. Mga espiyang patay, lantad na may ginagawa para malito ang kaaway at ibinibisto ng mga espiya natin mismo sa kalaban.

13. Mga espiyang buhay, nagdadala ng balita galing sa kampo ng kalaban.

14. Kaya dapat alagaan at bantayan ng mabuti ang mga espiya, at bayaran ng mabuti. Maging malihim ka ng husto sa pamamalakad sa espiya.

15. Hindi mapapakinabangan ang mga espiya kung hindi ka marunong kumilatis at makiramdam.

16. Hindi mo sila mahahawakan kung hindi ka makatao at matuwid.

17. Kung hindi ka tuso, hindi mo malalaman kung gaanong katotoo iyong mga iniuulat nila.

18. Gamitin mo ang iyong mga espiya para sa iba’t-ibang bagay.

19. Kapag ibinisto ng isang espiya ang isang balitang sekreto habang hindi pa tamang panahon, dapat siyang patayin kasama ng nasabihan ng sekretong ito.

20. Kung ang layunin ay wasakin ang isang puwersa, lusubin ang isang siyudad, o kaya patayin ang isang tao, alamin palagi ang mga pangalan ng mga alalay, mga adyutante, mga nasa pinto at tagabantay ng heneral na namumuno. Dapat iutos sa mga espiya na siguraduhin ang mga ito.

1990 CPA 6266

Kim Philby, traidor na taga-Inglatera

21. Dapat hanapin ang mga espiya ng kalaban na pumunta sa atin para usisahin tayo, painan, kuhanin at bahayin ng komportable. Sa ganoon, magiging espiyang ibinaligtad sila na handang sumilbi sa atin.

22. Gawa ng inpormasyon na dala ng espiyang ibinaligtad, makakakuha tayo ng mga espiyang pampook at espiyang tagaloob.

23. Gawa rin ng inpormasyon niya, magagamit natin ang espiyang patay para magdala ng maling balita sa kalaban.

24. Sa bandang huli, mapapakinabangan ang espiyang buhay sa nararapat na panahon.

25. Ang layunin ng limang uri ng pag-espiya ay kaalaman tungkol sa kalaban, at ang espiyang ibinaligtad ang unang makakapagbigay ng inpormasyon na ganito sa atin. Kaya dapat pagbigyan ng husto ang espiyang ibinaligtad.

26. Noong araw, umangat ang Yin dynasty gawa ni I Chih na trumaidor sa mga Hsia. Umangat din ang Chou dynasty gawa ni Lu Ya na doon sa mga Yin nagtatrabaho.

27. Kaya pakikinabangan ng isang pinunong marunong at ng heneral na tuso ang mga pinakamatalino sa puwersa para sa pag-espiya upang makakamit ng napakabuting resulta. Napakahalaga ng mga espiya sa tubig, dahil sa kanila nagdedepende kung makakakilos ang puwersa.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 5. October 2015

Philippine Internet speed

Introduction, Present Issues

The Philippines ranks 16th worldwide in terms of number of Internet users, with nearly 40 million out of a population of nearly 100 million. Many Filipinos use social media heavily. However, the Internet in the Philippines is in bad shape, being very expensive and slow. The are 9 main providers, PLDT and Globe Telecom being the largest. Complaints about the service quality and internet speed are numerous when it comes to the PLDT and Globe which are the only choice for many not in Metro Manila or nearby.

A recent article in Joe America inspired me to research more on the possible causes of this situation and look for solutions. I would like to thank the members of Joe America’s Society of Honor for assisting me with numerous hints and taking part in a practical check of the Philippine Internet from various locations using the tracert command.

Internet Exchanges, Peering

AMS-IX core cage eunOne major issue is that PLDT and Globe are not directly connected via an Internet Exchange Point in the Philippines. The following links explain more:

  1. http://telcotroll.com/fact-sheet-the-globe-pldt-ntc-dost-ip-peering-issue/
  2. https://www.reddit.com/r/Philippines/comments/2aurzq/how_pldt_deliberately_keeps_local_internet

To put it in a simplified way, Philippine Internet traffic that has to go between PLDT and Globe or the other way around goes abroad first, resulting in inefficiencies for the 20% of traffic that is local. The correct way usually followed by internet service providers worldwide is to have a peering agreement which governs how different providers bill each other for the traffic they exchange. There are three possibilities (Source: Wikipedia) :

  • Transit (or pay) – The network operator pays money (or settlement) to another network for Internet access (or transit).
  • Peer (or swap) – Two networks exchange traffic between their users freely, and for mutual benefit.
  • Customer (or sell) – A network pays another network money to be provided with Internet access.

Contributors at Joe America were able to show how Internet traffic is routed to and from the Philippines. The results can be summarized as follows:

  • Reaching PLDT is only easy from within PLDT. From outside the Philippines and from other providers, it goes a complex way and seems slow.
  • Reaching DOST from abroad is easier because they are connected via Hurricane Electric, a global backbone provider and have their own promising research network.
  • Traces from PLDT to DOST did not confirm that there is peering between the two, inspite of PLDT recently connecting to PHOpenIX which is run by DOST ASTI.

Internet map 1024In addition to this, all Philippine Internet Exchanges are located in Metro Manila. Meaning that nearly all Philippine Internet traffic from the provinces must probably pass through a bottleneck, even if the recent opening of an IX in Cebu will most certainly make routing more efficient, at least some traffic within the Visayas and Mindanao would not have to go to Manila first and back, freeing up much needed network capacity. Globe Telecom has been calling for peering with PLDT, but it seems the two giants are not able to reach an agreement.

Submarine cables

Nearly all international submarine cables leave the Philippines from near Manila or at least from Luzon, notable exceptions being Davao and Parang in Mindanao, with another major internation cable passing by Davao under construction. The intra-Philippine submarine cable network looks pretty good, although there is no data available about capacities.

However, the available information suggests once again a bottleneck for international traffic – which comprises 80% of Philippine internet usage – in the area around Manila. Not on EDSA this time, but probably on the way to a submarine cable in Batangas or La Union?

No excuses please

Even if one considers that the number of users and the use of the Internet has probably increased a lot in the past few years in the Philippines and providers probably are doing what they can to catch up with it, they are according to some Internet commenters overpromising and overselling – which is dangerous. And finally, even the profit motive does not excuse them – after all, American robber barons in the 19th century made money but delivered by producing steel, building railways from coast to coast and more.

In Russia wide transcontinental expanses were connected by Rostelecom and as of 2007 all schools are online. In Romania the Internet is faster than in the United States, partly due to small enterpreneurs who built local neighborhood networks and connected them with one another and later with Romtelecom. These are ex-Communist countries that once were far behind.

Progress, possible solutions

More competition could be helpful. Telstra is planning to move in partnering with San Miguel, which could help against the de-facto duopoly that PLDT and Globe presently are. Converge ICT which is mainly located in and around Metro Manila has received positive reviews, meaning that there already is competition in the Metro Manila area and surroundings.Hi Speed Internet Neon Sign Minneapolis 4573842992

More Internet Exchanges would ease intra-Philippine traffic and open up capacities badly needed for international traffic. An IX in Davao could help in conjunction with the submarine cables already leaving from there and being built to have another conduit for international Internet traffic, easing the bottleneck in Manila that I consider very probable given the indications.

Additional undersea cables not only from Luzon towards international destinations should in my opinion also be built – to increase capacity towards the provinces that are growing quickly economically and will probably be contributing to growing internet traffic.

Expand government network. DOST has a network connected to most of UP, DOST, MMDA, PSHS Diliman, Pagasa, DFA and Ateneo de Manila University, among others. This could be the basis of a government network that connects to schools and to government offices nationwide. Via peering agreements, the network capacity thus built could be billed to others, helping pay for the investment.

Separate network and retail parts. This is done in New Zealand for example. The network could be run by the state or by a state-regulated company while the providers compete in connecting to end consumers. In such a scenario, even Romanian-style neighborhood networks could be possible local players to take care of the last mile. Before doing this, forcing big players to peer, even to provide capacity at fixed rates to other players should be tried so that there is a real intra-Philippine internet backbone for all.

Fast Internet access is a competitive advantage and can help improve governance as well as internal communication and learning, especially for a country that is separated into so many islands. Short-term profits of some should not stand in the way of long-term progress for the majority of people.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, 1. October 2015, Munich

P.S. Thank you JoeAm for the reblog!

 

 

 

Sun Tzu in Filipino Chapter 12

Ang atake sa pamamagitan ng apoy

1. Sabi ni Sun Tzu: lima ang paarang umatake sa pamamagitan ng apoy. Primero: sunugin ang mga sundalo sa kanilang kampo. Segundo: sunugin ang mga almasen. Tercero: sunugin ang sasakyan na may dalang bagahe. Kuwatro: sunugin ang mga sandata at bala. Singko: magtapon ng apoy sa kalaban.

2. Para makaatake, kailangang maging handa. Dapat laging nakahanda ang mga materyales para gumawa ng apoy.

Iraqi Security Forces, Paratroopers respond after indirect fire attack in al-Karada DVIDS1588393. May tamang panahon para umatake sa pamamagitan ng apoy, at may natatanging araw para magsimula nito.

4. Tamang panahon kapag tuyong-tuyo lahat; sa buwan nakikita kung ano ang mga natatanging araw – tignan kung kailan palakas ang hangin.

5. Kung sunog ang ginagamit para umatake, dapat handa ka para sa limang puwedeng mangyari:

6. (1) Kung magkaroon ng apoy sa loob ng kampo ng kaaway, atake kaagad mula sa labas.

7. (2) Kung magkasunog sa kampo, pero tahimik ang mga sundalo ng kaaway, hintay ka muna at huwag umatake.

8. (3) Kapag nasa sukdulan na ang apoy, sundan mo kaagad ng atake kung makakaya mo; kung hindi, huwag kang kumilos.

9. (4) Kung posibleng magsimula ng sunog mula sa labas, huwag mong antayin na magsimula ito sa loob, kundi umatake ka kapag tama ang timing.

10. (5) Kung magsimula ka ng apoy, dapat doon ka kung saan galing ang hagnin. Huwag kang umatakeng kontra sa hangin.

11. Hangin na lumalakas sa araw, tumatagal. Ihip ng hangin sa gabi nawawala.

12. Sa bawat army, dapat alam ang limang puwedeng mangyari sa apoy, pag-aralan ang magiging panahon at hangin para sa tamang araw.Atomic Explosion over Hiroshima

13. Kaya ang gumagamit ng apoy para umatake, matalino, ang gumagamit ng tubig para umatake, lumalakas.

14. Sa pamamagitan ng tubig, mapipigil ang kaaway, pero hindi siya mahihiwalay sa lahat ng kanyang pag-aari.

15. Malas ang kapalaran ng nagnanais manalo sa labanan at paglusob pero hindi nagtuturo ng katapangan; dahil nasasayang lang ang oras at walang nangyayari.

16. Kaya may kasabihan: ang pinunong malawak ang kaisipan, nagpaplano ng pangmatagalan; ang heneral na sanay, inaalagaan ang kanyang mga resources.

17. Huwag kang kumilos kung wala kang bentaha; huwag mong gamitin ang puwersa mo kung walang makukuha; huwag kang lumaban kung hindi mahalaga ang posisyon.

18. Walang pinunong dapat maglabas ng puwersa sa labanan para magpasikat; walang heneral na dapat lumaban dahil lang sa pagkapikon.

19. Kung makakalamang ka, umabante ka; kung hindi, huwag kang kumilos.

20. Ang galit, maaring maging kasiyahan pagdating ng panahon; pagkaasar, maaring maging pagkakuntento ang kasunod.

21. Pero hindi mababalik ulit ang isang bansang tuluyang nawasak; hindi rin maaring buhayin ulit ang mga patay.

22. Kaya ang pinunong malawak ang kaisipan, mapag-intindi, at maingat ang mabuting heneral. Sa ganito payapa ang bansa at buo ang kanyang puwersa.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 26. September 2015

 

Metro Manila traffic

Current situationASMjf3188 10

Recent news has brought the traffic problem in Metro Manila to the forefront once again. Horrendous traffic jams cause enormous losses to the economy and make the life of those who want to get to and from work or shopping or visits very hard. The bad condition of the MRT along EDSA after just 16 years has made headlines.

But let us look at the situation more closely. Metro Manila has an official population of nearly 12 million living in an area of over 600 square kilometers. Unofficially, there are probably much more people due to large numbers of informal settlers. Mexico City has almost 9 million people living in an area of almost 1500 square kilometers. Even Tokyo which is known to be densely populated has only 9 million people living in an area roughly the same size as Metro Manila. Berlin with 900 square kilometers is home to just around three and a half million people.

In fact, several cities in Metro Manila or the National Capital Region (NCR) as it is also called are among the most densely populated cities in the world. The MRT which was originally designed for a capacity of 450 thousand passengers per day carried 600 thousand passengers daily as of 2012-2013. The population of Metro Manila officially doubled from almost 6 million in 1980 to almost 12 million in these days, meaning that inspite of measures taken to modernize infrastructure, the city is operating far beyond its capacity.

HistoryGuadalupeMRTjf1122 04

Metro Manila was created in 1975 by decree of President Marcos. The Metro Manila Commission was formed to administer the area. Studies commissioned in 1973 and 1977 saw the need to develop and extend the existing network of radial and circumferential roads, and to build a rail transit network in order to be more efficient. In the following years, EDSA or Highway 54 was widened, underpasses were built and construction was started on the first LRT line from Baclaran to Monumento. Projects continued, although the Metro Manila Commission was later replaced by weaker successors, the Metro Manila Authority and then the present Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA). Unfortunately individual cities got back more power again, which made things harder to coordinate.

EDSA or C-4 got flyovers or underpasses on all major crossings. C-5 was constructed further outside. The LRT 2 line from Manila to Marikina was built as well as the MRT from Baclaran to EDSA North. Philippine National Railway stations in Manila were revived and are used again today.

Inspite of progress, some things were underestimated or forgotten. The MRT and LRT systems lacked and still lack good interfaces to other means of transport. Especially the MRT has very high stairs or escalators, making it very impractical to get into some stations. Often the sidewalks near the stations are not sufficiently wide, or the bus stops if they are used do not have bays so busses stopping for passengers block traffic – not to mention busses that hold up several lanes at a time on EDSA. PNR stations are often not very attractive or inviting to commuters. During peak times, there can be lines that cause it to take very long until one is able to board the MRT or LRT.

Possible solutions168-9001 Hamamatsu 20010804

Ideally, a commuter should be able to take his car or another form of transport and board rapid transit efficiently, then maybe take another mode of transport from his final stop to work. Since this is obviously not possible for many, a lot of people going to work take the car – most probably also for safety reasons in an Asian megacity with large differences in income and opportunities. Increased affluence has led to more cars on the streets, while maintenance issues on the MRT and its crowdedness have decreased its attractivity. Problems with discipline and traffic enforcement add to the already difficult business of managing traffic in Metro Manila.

In addition to this, people are already leaving Metro Manila, or settling in places outside like Cavite but commuting to work in Metro Manila which takes hours, given the fact that there is no really viable rapid transit to the outskirts. There is a master plan by JICA to create urban centers outside Manila, but it will take long to implement.

Fixing the MRT is one of the most urgent measures and as of this article being written is already being addressed. Tightening traffic enforcement is also already being done, so the urgent things are already work in progress. There are already apps like WAZE and by MMDA to assist motorists, but these do not solve the fundamental issues.

München MarienplatzThe next steps could be to remove obstacles on major roads that cause traffic to pile up. Maximum traffic flow is always determined by the worst chokepoint. Next thing is to improve interfaces between rapid transit lines among themselves and towards other public transport systems to make it easier for commuters, widen sidewalks or build elevated walkways for their convenience – something that has already been done in Makati for example. For potential commuters coming from outside, parking garages could be built close to major stations like North Avenue MRT so that they can just leave their cars there and continue without adding traffic to this major street.

For commuters outside Metro Manila, it is high time to build new rail lines, ideally with high capacity – double decker train wagons like some regional trains for example in Japan, possibly with stations along Manila Bay – Mall of Asia and Quirino Grandstand for example, since it is easier to build a high-capacity line along the front of Roxas Boulevard or nearby because there is (still) more space. To facilitate rapid boarding, ideas such as the Spanish solution of having platforms on both sides and one-way traffic for loading and unloading should be considered.

Instead of going for grand projects, quick results should be the goal, do what is necessary first, then what is possible.

Future developments

DOST AGT monorailThere are projects like the Laguna Lakeshore Expressway Dike which will start soon and will make it easier to travel to areas south of Manila. Yet it may be necessary to move as much as possible out of the city. Moving government offices and their employees has already been suggested by Senator Alan Peter Cayetano. New industrial centers could provide work for resettled informal settlers as well and prevent them from coming back to Metro Manila. And not only decrease traffic there, but make the city more livable again.

DOST Hybrid electric road trainTo prevent the areas vacated from being filled up again, proper urban planning should be applied to turn them into parks for example. Additional taxes on businesses located in Manila would be a negative incentive to leave and could finance restructuring – and subsidize development of new regional centers, near Manila and on other islands.

The Department of Science and Technology has developed two interesting technologies: the automated guideway transit or AGT which a pilot route is planned for U.P. Diliman to replace jeepneys – especially the higher-capacity version for 120 passengers now running on a test route in Bicutan is of interest long-term – and the road train bus. DOST emphasized developing local capabilities in manufacturing, which also means that procurement and maintenance would not cause spending or even debts in dollars. Who knows maybe one day they will build trains, but public transport that feeds rapid transit is just as important – there you have the AGT and road trains, possible in conjunction with Bus Rapid Transit – to replace vans, tricycles and jeepneys.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Joe America and his contributor chempo for writing an article which inspired me, as well as this blog by a Filipino traffic and urban planning expert. Please feel free to let me know your observations, ideas and criticisms!

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 23. September 2015

Sun Tzu in Filipino Chapter 11

Siyam na Sitwasyon

IfugaoTerraces, Philippines1. Sabi ni Sun Tzu: siyam na sitwasyon tungkol sa lugar ang kinikilala ng kasanayan sa gyera: (1) kalat na lugar; (2) madaling lugar; (3) lugar ng pinagtatalunan; (4) bukas na lugar; (5) lugar ng mga kalyeng nagsasama-sama; (6) seryosong lugar; (7) mahirap na lugar; (8) lugar na mahirap makalabas; (9) desperadong lugar.

2. Kapag lumalaban ang isang pinuno sa sariling teritoryo, kalat na lugar ang tawag dito.

3. Kung nakapasok na siya sa teritoryo ng kalaban pero hindi pa gaano, madaling lugar ito.

4. Ang lugar na makakapagbigay ng malaking lamang sa nakakahawak, lugar na pinagtatalunan.

5. Ang lugar kung saan madaling makakilos lahat, bukas na lugar.

6. Ang lugar kung saan madaling makapunta sa iba’t-ibang teritoryong malapit, na kung sino ang makahawak nito, hawak ang buong bansa, lugar ng mga kalyeng nagsasama-sama.

7. Kapag nakapasok ang puwersa sa loob ng bansa ng kalaban at may mga kutang iniwan sa likod, seryosong lugar ito.

8. Gubat sa bundok, labon at latian – lahat ng lugar na mahirap tawirin – ito ang lugar na mahirap.

9. Lugar na maabot lang sa makitid na lugay, na malalabasan lang sa daang pasikot-sikot, kung saan sapat ang kokonting kalaban para sagupain ang isang malaking puwersa natin: ito ay lugar na mahirap makalabas.

10. Lugar na makakaligtas lang tayo kung lalaban tayo kaagad – ito ay lugar na desperado.

11. Kaya sa kalat na lugar, huwag kang lumaban. Sa madaling lugar, huwag kang tumigil. Sa lugar na pinagtatalunan, huwag kang lumusob.

12. Sa bukas na lugar, huwag mong subukang hadlangan ang kalaban.  Sa lugar ng mga kalyeng nagsasama-sama, makipag-ugnay ka sa iyong mga kakampi.

13. Sa seryosong lugar, magnakaw ka. Sa mahirap na lugar, huwag kang tumigil sa pagmartitsya.

14. Sa lugar na mahirap makalabas, dumeskarte ka. Sa lugar na desperado, lumaban ka.

December 1982, Hundred Islands-215. Ang mga tinatawag na magagaling na pinuno noong araw, marunong gumawa ng hadlang sa harap at likod ng kalaban; siguraduhin na hindi makipag-ugnay ang kanyang mga malaki at maliit na dibisyon, abalahin ang mga magagaling na tropa para hindi nila matulungan ang mga tropang mahina; pigilin ang mga officer na maitipon nila ang kanilang mga sundalo.

16. Kapag magkaisa ang mga sundalo ng kalaban, nagawan nila ng paraan para magkagulo sila.

17. Kung mapapakinabangan nila, umabante sila, kung hindi, huminto sila.

18. Kung itanong ka kung paano mo kakayanin ang isang malaking puwersa ng kalaban na nakahanay na maayos at handang lumusob, ito ang masasabi ko: “kunin mo muna ang isang bagay na mahalaga sa kalaban, saka niya gagawin ang gusto mo”.

19. Kabilisan ang pinakamahalag sa gyera: samantalahin mo ang hindi pagkahanda ng kalaban; lumapit ka mula sa rotang di inaasahan, at atakehin mo ang mga lugar na walang guwardiya.

20. Heto ang mga prinsipyo para sa isang puwersa na sumasalakay: habang napupunta ka sa loob ng isang bansa, lalaki ang pagkakaisa ng iyong mga sundalo, kaya hindi mananalo ang mga dumedepensa.

21. Magnakaw ka sa masasaganang lugar para may pagkain ang puwersa mo.

22. Pag-aralan mo ng mabuti ang kalusugan ng iyong mga sundalo at huwag mo silang pagurin masyado. Ipaloob at ipunin mo ang iyong lakas. Laging dapat kumikilos ang puwersa mo, at gumawa ka ng mga planong hindi makilatis.

23. Ilagay mo ang mga sundalo mo sa mga posisyon na walang takas, at mas gugustuhin nila ang kamatayan kaysa tumakas. Kung haharap sila sa kamatayan, wala silang hindi mararating. Ipapakita ng mga officer at sundalo ang kanilang pinakamalaking lakas.

24. Mawawalan ng takot ang mga sundalo kapag nasa desperado silang sitwasyon. Kung wala sila tatakasan, matatag sila. Kung nasa bansa sila ng kalaban, titigas ang ulo nila. Kung walang tutulong sa kanila, lalaban sila ng matindi.

25. Kaya magiging laging masigla ang mga sundalo kahit walang tumutulak sa kanila; gagawin nila ang gusto mo kahit hindi mo hingiin sa kanila; magiging tapat sila na walang nagbabantay; mapapagkatiwalaan sila kahit hindi inuutusan.

Aviaductjf26. Ipagbawal ang panghuhula at panghihinala. Sa ganoon, walang dapat pagtakutan kundi ang kamatayan kapag dumating.

27. Kung walang gaanong salapi ang mga sundalo, hindi ito dahil ayaw nila ito; kung hindi gaanong mahaba ang mga buhay nila, hindi ito dahil ayaw nila ito.

28. Sa araw na uutusan silang lumaban, maaring umiyak ang mga sundalo mo, at mabasa ang kanilang mga damit o pisngi. Ngunit matatapang sila kapag napakilos mo na.

29. Ang magaling sa taktika, parang ahas na kung tamaan mo sa ulo, buntot ang aatake sa iyo, kung tamaan mo sa buntot, ulo ang aatake, kung sa gitna mo tamaan, ulo at buntot ang aatake.

30. Kung ako ang tatanungin kung paano magagaya ng isang army ang ahas na ganoon, maisasagot ko na kahit magkakalaban, kung nasa iisang barko at nabagyo, magpipintakasi.

31. Kaya huwag kang masyadong magtiwala lang sa kabayo o sasakyan.

32. Dapat iisa ang antas ng katapangan sa loob ng isang puwersa.

33. Gamitin sa tamang paraan ang lugar para mapakinabangan ang malalakas at mahihina.

34. Kaya ang magaling na heneral kung mamuno sa isang puwersa, parang umaakay sa isang sundalo sa gusto niya.

35. Trabaho ng heneral ang maging tahimik at malihim, matuwid at makatarungan upang maayos ang pamamalakad.

36. Kaya dapat niyang lituhin ang kanyang mga alagad at tauhan sa pamamagitan ng hindi tunay na ulat at paglitaw, para manatili silang ignorante.

37. Papalit-palit dapat ang kanyang mga pagsasaayos at plano para walang alam ang kaaway. Palipat-lipat dapat ang kampo niya at maligoy ang daan para hindi alam ng kaaway ang gagawin niya.

38. Sa mahalagang momento, dapat siyang maging parang isang umakyat tapos isinipa ng patalikod ang hagdan. Papasok muna siya sa teritoryo ng kalaban bago niya ipakita ang kanyang hawak na baraha.

39. Isinusunog niya ang kanyang mga barko at iwinawasak niya ang mga kalan; kung saan-saan niya ipinapupunta ang mga tauhan niya para walang makaalam kung saan siya patungo.

40. Itipon ang kayang puwersa at ilagay ito sa panganib – ito ang trabaho ng heneral.

41. Ang iba’t-ibang hakbang na bagay sa siyam na uri ng lugar; ang pagiging bagay ng taktikang agresibo o depensibo; at ang mga saligang lamat ng mga tao: ito ang mga bagay na dapat pag-aralan.

42. Kung lulusob ka sa teritoryo ng kaaway, heto ang totoo: kung lulusob ka ng malalim, pagkakaisa ang resulta; pagkawatak-watak lang ang mangyayari sa paglusob na maigsi.

43. Kapag iniwan mo ang iyong bansa at tumawid ka sa teritoryo ng iba, nasa mahirap kang lugar. Kung may mapupuntahan ka sa lahat ng direksiyong, nasa lugar ka ng mga kalyeng nagsasama-sama.

44. Kung nakapasok ka ng husto sa isang bansa, seryosong lugar ito. Kung hindi ka gaanong nakapasok, madaling lugar ito.DupaxdelNorte,Nueva Vizcayajf7029 26

45. Kung nasa likod mo ang mga kuta ng kalaban, at makitid na lagusan ang nasa harap mo, nasa lugar ka na mahirap makalabas. Kung wala kang matakasan, nasa desperadong lugar ka.

46. Kaya sa kalat ng lugar, gigisingin ko ang pagkakaisa ng mga sundalo. Sa madaling lugar, sisiguraduhin kong magkalapit ang lahat ng bahagi ng aking puwersa.

47. Sa lugar na pinagtatalunan, pagmamadaliin ko ang likuran ng puwersa.

48. Sa bukas na lugar, pagmamasdan ko ang aking mga depensa. Sa lugar ng mga kalyeng nagsasama-sama, patitibayin ko ang aking mga alyansa.

49. Sa seryosong lugar, sisikapin kong hindi maputol ang pinangagalingan ng supplies. Sa mahirap na lugar, mananatili ako sa pag-abante.

50. Sa lugar na mahirap makalabas, haharangin ko ang lahat na mauurungan. Sa lugar na desperado, ipapahayag ko sa mga sundalo na wala na silang pag-asang makaligtas.

51. Pagka’t natural sa sundalo ang lumaban ng husto kapag napapaligiran, lumaban ng mabagsik kapag wala nang pag-asa, at sumunod sa utos sa oras ng panganib.

52. Hindi tayo maaring makipag-alyansa sa mga pinunong kalapit natin kung hindi natin alam ang kanilang mga layunin. Hindi tayo karapat-dapat mamuno sa isang puwersang nagmamartsa kung hindi natin gamay ang bansa – ang kanyang mga bundok at gubat, patibong at bangin, lati at bani. Hindi natin mapapakinabangan ang mga natural na bentaha kung hindi tayo gagamit ng mga patnubay na galing sa lugar mismo.

53. Hindi nararapat sa isang pangulong mandirigma ang bumali-wala sa apat o limang prinsipyong sumusunod.

54. Kung aatakehin ng pangulong mandirigma ang isang estadong malakas, ginagawa niya ang lahat para hindi magka-kumpol-kumpol ang mga puwersa ng kalaban. Isinisindak niya ang kanyang mga kaaway para hindi sila tulungan ng kanilang mga kakampi.

55. Kaya hindi niya inaatupag ang makipagkampi sa lahat, at hindi niya ipinalalakas ang ibang estado. Lagi siyang may lihim na itinatangka para mapahanga ang kanyang mga katalo. Kaya niyang masagupa ang kanilang mga siyudad at ibagsak ang kanilang mga bansa.

View from Mt. Manaphag56. Magbigay ka ng gantimpala na walang pakialam sa patakaran, mag-utos ka na walang pakialam sa pinagkasunduan; at mahahawak mo ang isang puwersa na parang isang tao lamang.

57. Sabihin mo lang sa sundalo kung ano ang gagawin nila, huwag mong ipabatid ang plano mo. Kung may pag-asa, ipakita mo sa kanila; pero huwag mong sabihin sa kanila kung malabo ito.

58. Ilagay mo sa mortal na panganib ang iyong puwersa, at mabubuhay ito; ilagay mo sa sitwasyon na desperado, at makakaligtas ito.

59. Ang puwersang nasa mapanganib na sitwasyon, makakagawa ng paraan para manalo.

60. Magtatagumpay ka sa gyera kung maingat tayong makikibagay sa hangarin ng kaaway.

61. Kung lagi tayong sasabit sa gilid ng kaaway, sa tagal-tagal mapapatay din natin ang kanyang punong komandante.

62. Ito ang itinatawag na kakayahang makamtan ang isang bagay sa pamamagitan ng lubos na pagkatuso.

63. Sa araw na mailagay ka sa kapangyarihan, harangin mo ang mga lagusan, sirain mo ang lahat ng nakatala, at pigilin mo ang pagdaan  ng lahat ng emisaryo.

64. Maging mahigpit ka sa konsehal, para hawak mo ang sitwasyon.

65. Kung hayaang bukas ng kaaway ang isang pintuan, pasok agad.

66. Unahan mo ang kalaban – kunin mo ang mahalaga sa kanya, at abangan mo ang kanyang pagdating.

67. Sundan mo muna ang landas na nakatakda at makibagay ka sa kalaban hangga’t sa kaya mo siyang ituluyan sa labanan.

68. Magpakipot ka na parang dalaga hangga’t sa bigyan ka ng pagkakataon ng kalaban; pagkatapos bilisan mo ang paglusob para hindi ka na na makontra ng kaaway.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, 12 September 2015, München