Sun Tzu in Filipino Chapter 4

Taktika para magtagumpay

1. Sabi ni Sun Tzu: isinisigurado muna ng mga mandirigma noong araw na hindi sila maaring matalo, tapos hinihintay nila ang pagkakataong talunin ang kaaway.

2. Nasa sa atin ang maniguradong hindi tayo matalo, pero ang kaaway mismo ang nagbibigay ng pagkakataon para matalo siya.

3. Samakatwid, alam ng magaling na mandirigma kung paano niya sisiguraduhin na hindi siya matalo, pero hindi niya masisiguradong matalo niya ang kaaway.

4. Kaya may kasabihan: maaring marunong kang sumakop, pero hindi mo pa rin magawa.

5. Sa taktika ng pagtatanggol nasisigurado ang hindi ka matalo, sa paglusob nagdedepende ang pagtalo sa kaaway.

6. Kung lagi mong ipinagtatanggol ang sarili mo, kulang pa ang lakas mo, kung lumulusob ka, sobra na ang lakas mo.

7. Ang Heneral na magaling sa pagtatanggol, nagtatago sa mga lihim na lugar ng lupa; ang magaling sa paglusob, biglang nanggagaling sa taas ng langit. Kaya alam natin dapat kung paano natin po-protektahin ang sarili natin, at alam din natin kung paano tayo tuluyang mananalo.

8. Hindi malaking kagalingan kung makita mo ang isang makakamtan na tagumpay na makikita rin ng kahit sino.

9. Hindi rin malaking kagalingan kung lumaban ka at sumakop tapos purihin ka ng buong bansa.

10. Hindi katunayan ng napakalaking lakas kung mabuhat mo ang isang buhok; hindi katunayan ng matalas na paningin ang makita ang araw at buwan; ang kulog ng kidlat maririnig ng kahit sino.

11. Tulad ng sabi ng mga matatanda, hindi lang nananalo ang isang tusong mandirigma, kundi marunong siyang manalo sa madaling paraan.

12. Kaya hindi niya maipagmamalaki ang kanyang talino o tapang gawa ng kanyang mga tagumpay.

Sarpsfossen (1789) von Erik Pauelsen13. Nananalo siya dahil hindi siya nagkakamali. Diyan nasisigurado ang tagumpay, dahil diyan nasasakop ang isang kaaway na talo na.

14. Kaya nilalagay ng magaling na mandirigma ang sarili niya sa isang posisyon na hindi na siya maaring matalo, at hindi niya ipinapalipas ang pagkakataong matalo ang kaaway.

15. Kaya sa gyera, hinahanap lang ng matagumpay na estratehista ang labanan kapag panalo na siya, ang matatalo naman, lumalaban muna bago niya hanapin ang kanyang tagumpay.

16. Inaalagaan ng ganap na pinuno ang kanyang ugali, at sumusunod siya sa tamang paraan at disiplina, kaya hawak niya ang kanyang suwerte.

17. Pagdating sa paraan na militar, meron tayong (1) pagsukat (2) pagtuos (3) kalkulasyon (4) pagtimbang sa pag-asang manalo (5) at tagumpay.

18. Dahil may lupa, maaring sumukat, gawa ng pagsukat, maaring tumuos, gawa ng pagtuos, maaring gumawa ng kalkulasyon, gawa ng kalkulasyon, maaring timbangin kung ano ang pag-asang manalo, at gawa rito, maaring magtagumpay.

19. Ang isang army na panalo kung ihambing sa isang army na talo, tulad ng isang kaban ng bigas laban sa isang butil ng palay.

20. Ang agos ng isang puwersang sumasakop, tulad ng agos ng tubig mula sa bundok pababa sa isang bangin.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 18. June 2015

Sun Tzu in Filipino Chapter 3

Paghandang Lumusob

1 Pagdating sa gyera, pinakamaganda ang huwag sirain ang isang bansa, pinakamaganda ang huwag sirain ang isang army, pinakamaganda ang huwag sirain ang isang batalyon, pinakamaganda ang huwag sirain ang isang company, pinakamaganda ang huwag sirain ang isang eskuwadra.

2 Kaya hindi malaking kagalingan ang magkaroon ng isangdaang tagumpay sa isangdaang labanan – pinakamagaling ka kung matalo mo ang kalaban na hindi mo kailangang lumaban.

Fort Drum DN-SN-83-098913 Kaya ang pinakamagandang estratehiya ang umatake sa plano ng kalaban, kasunod doon umatake sa kanyang mga alyansya, kasuno pa roon ang umatake sa kanyang militar, at pinakamasama ang umatake sa isang kuta.

4 Kaya huwag kang umatake ng matagalan sa isang kuta kung may iba kang magagawa.

5 Tatlong buwan mahigit ang kakailanganin para gumawa ng mga sasakyang protektado, proteksiyon para sa mga sundalo at iba pang armas at kasangkapan.

6 Tatlong buwan pa ang kakailanganin para gumawa ng mga punsong nakapaligid sa kuta.

7 Kung mainit ang ulo ng heneral at ipalusob niya ang kanyang mga sundalo, 1/3 ang mapapatay, at hindi pa rin masasakop ang kuta. Ganito ang mangyayaring kasawian.

8 Kaya ang talagang magaling sa gyera, itinatalo ang kalaban kahit hindi siya lumaban, isinasakop niya ang kuta ng kalaban pero hindi niya nilulusob, at itinatalo niya ang kalaban sa mabilis na paraan para hindi tumagal masyado ang gyera.

9 Dapat palagi niyang alagaan ang nasa ilalim ng langit.

10 Samakatwid, hindi mapupudpod ang mga sandata, at hindi mawawala ang nakamtan. Heto ang mga prinsipyo ng paghahandang lumusob.

11 Say gyera: kung sampung beses kang mas malakas kaysa kalaban, paligiran mo; kung limang beses kang mas malakas, lusubin mo, kung doble ang lakas mo, hatiin mo sila, kung pantay lang kayo, maghanda kang lumaban, kung mas konti kayo, maghanda kayong umiwas, kung mas mahina kayo, maghanda kayong tumakas.

12 Samakatwid, ang isang mas maliit na army na hindi madeskarte, matatalo at masasakop ng mas malaking army.Osa-I class Project205 DN-SN-84-01770

13 Ang Heneral ay tagapagtanggol ng sambayanan. Kung may suporta siya, malakas ang sambayanan. Kung wala siyang suporta, mahina ang sambayanan.

14 Sa tatlong paraan makakapagbigay ng problema ang isang Pinunong-Bayan sa militar: (1) magpalusob kung hindi sila handang lumusob, o paurungin sila kahit hindi sila handang umurong. Panggugulo sa army ang tawag dito.

15 (2) kapag hindi niya alam ang mga bagay na militar, at pang-civilian ang kanyang pamamalakad, maguguluhan ang mga officer at sundalo.

16 (3) kapag hindi niya alam ang mga plano ng militar, at siya na ang nag-uutos, mag-aalangan ang mga officer at sundalo.

17 Kapag naguguluhan at nag-aalangan ang militar, papakinabangan ito ng mga kalaban, at sa ganito, mananalo sila.

18 Samakatwid, may limang bagay para malaman kung sino ang mananalo: (1) ang nakakaalam kung kailan siya handang lumaban at hindi, mananalo.

19 (2) Ang nakakaalam kung kailan niya dapat gamitin ang kanyang mga puwersang maliit at malaki, mananalo.

20 (3) Ang nakakaalam kung paanong bigyan ng iisang hangarin ang mga ranggong mataas at mababa, mananalo.

21 (4) Ang handa at naghihintay sa hindi handa, mananalo.

22 (5) Ang may magaling na Heneral na hindi ipinapakialaman ng Pinunong-Bayan, mananalo. Eto ang limang bagay para malaman ang mananalo.

23 Kaya sinasabi ko: kung kilala mo ang kalaban, at kilala mo ang sarili mo, hindi ka malalagay sa panganib, maski sa isaangdaang laban.

24 Kung hindi mo kilala ang kalaban pero kilala mo ang sarili mo, minsan mananalo ka, minsan matatalo ka. Kung hindi mo kilala ang kalaban pati sarili mo, delikado ang bawat laban.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 14 June 2015

P.S. medyo pangkalye ang ginamit kong Filipino. Para makarating sa mas marami. Malaking laban ang haharapin ng Pilipinas laban sa Tsina at hindi na siguro ito maiiwasan.

Philippine History Part II – State. Section 3 – Philippine Commonwealth

Quezon and McArthur

Based on the Tydings-McDuffie Act and the resulting Constitutional Convention in 1934, the Philippine Commonwealth and the 1935 Constitution were created. Presidential elections were held and won by Manuel L. Quezon (Nacionalista Party), with Emilio Aguinaldo (National Socialist Party) and Gregorio Aglipay (Republican Party) behind them. The National Defense Act was passed, with the Office of the Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines under General Douglas MacArthur, who was appointed to be Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.

Aguinaldo and Quezon in 1935

Aguinaldo and Quezon in 1935

CampMurphy

McArthur inducts the Philippine Army Air Corps in 1941 at Camp Murphy, now Camp Aguinaldo

 MacArthur had the intention of making the Philippines self-reliant in its defense:

“A small fleet will have distinct effect in compelling any hostile force to approach cautiously. The only naval task is that of inshore defense. This will be provided by flotillas of fast torpedo boats, supported by an air force”

“These islands have enormous defensive advantages. Luzon has only 2 areas where a hostile army could land. Each of these positions is broken by strong defensive positions.”

“When developed the Philippine Army will be strong enough to oppose any conceivable expeditionary force. By 1946, the Islands will be in a favorable posture of defensive security.”

President Manuel L. Quezon built up the state with a number of impressive measures in the areas of social justice, agrarian reform, education and giving women the right to vote.

Tagalog was adopted as the basis for the national language, Filipino. The COMELEC was established in 1940.

The Japanese invaded in late 1941 and interrupted all of this.


The Japanese occupation

Jose P. Laurel

Jose P. Laurel

Luis Taruc

Luis Taruc

MacArthur, Quezon and Osmeña left the Philippines. The remaining combined Filipino and American troops surrendered in May 1942.

 Quezon and Osmeña set up a government-in-exile, while the Japanese set up a puppet government under Jose P. Laurel. Sergio Osmeña became President of the government-in-exile after Quezon died of tuberculosis in the United States.

The Japanese met with enormous resistance from guerrila groups: Philippine Army soldiers, USAFFE soldiers and Filipino Muslims. American submarines supplied some groups. The communist Hukbalahap were also formed under Luis Taruc in Central Luzon.

Former Katipunan General Artemio Ricarte, also known as “El Vibora” (The Viper), returned from Japanese exile. He was instrumental in setting up the Makapili, who cooperated with the Japanese Kempetai – as informers against the guerrilas.

All of this plus food shortages and severe inflation made times very difficult. Some people were place into internment camps. Numerous atrocities were commited against civilians by the Japanese Imperial Army.


McArthur returns

MacArthur, Kenney and Sutherland

Lt. General Kenney, Lt. General Sutherland, President Osmeña, General MacArthur

In October 1944, McArthur landed in Leyte with President Osmeña. Manila was reconquered in February to March 1945 but was heavily devastated, especially the old Spanish quarter of Intramuros. Japanese troops massacred, raped and mutilated countless people.

The Philippines Campaign retook all major Philippine islands by April, yet fighting continued until final Japanese surrender in August 1945. The last Japanese holdout was found in Mindoro jungles in 1974.

President Osmeña restored the Commonwealth. The Philippines became a founding member of the United Nations and the IMF. In the last Commonwealth Presidential election held in 1946, Sergio Osmeña (Nacionalista Party) lost against Manuel Roxas (Liberal Party). Roxas was instrumental in facilitating approval of the Bell Trade Act, which granted the United States preferential terms in trade in exchange for rebuilding funds.

On the 4th of July 1946, the Philippines became formally independent, yet strongly bound to the United States by military bases and trade agreements. The state was damaged but fully formed. The nation was still to go through many trials.

One of the technical assistants to President Manuel Roxas was a then 29 year old lawyer named Ferdinand Marcos, who was at that time still with the Liberal Party. Before the war, Marcos had passed his bar exam and successfully defended himself from prison against charges of murdering his father’s political rival…

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, June 12, 2015.

P.S. In-depth related articles: (will be updated as they appear)

Series on McArthur by guest author Bill in Oz:

I am working on a Quezon biography. Manong sonny is working on a history of the Commonwealth Army.

Centralism versus Federalism

Philippine languages per region

The Philippines is a centralistic state, a legacy of Spanish colonialism. Latin countries are very centralistic, even to the extent of suppressing local traditions and languages. France did this during the French revolution, Spain still tries to do this towards its regions even after Franco. But is this appropriate for an archipelago, for a country with so many local traditions?

It might be better to give the regions more representation in order to make the nation more flexible, even encourage economic competion between regions. What must be guarded against are separatist tendencies. Therefore I have a proposal for a decentralized, federal organization of the Philippines:

  • National level: keep legislation, national security, central databases such as NCSO, Land Titles, control over strategic natural resources etc.
  • Regional level: handles economic incentives, education and culture (coordinated among regions to ensure compatibility) and tourism promotion
  • Local level: handles citizen services (helped by national databases), small and medium-sized business promotion, and barangay-level mediation

Being an SAP expert, this is similar to the three-tier SAP model: database server (national), application server (regional) and user interface (local). It would ensure that matters that need to be controlled nationally are kept national, things that have to be close to the citizen are close to the citizen, and regions can compete with one another economically, in attracting tourists, and in promoting their professional and vocational talents. The entire nation would benefit.

More ideas as food for thought and further brainstorming:

  • Why not abolish provinces and replace them with cantons like in Switzerland – smaller than provinces but composed of several local government units (LGUs)?
  • Why not give nation, regions and cantons the power to raise their own respective taxes and spend them, with some central auditing?
  • Why not change the setup of the Senate, make it a body that has two Senators per region, giving regions a stronger voice – and more prestige?
  • Why not move the Supreme Court to Cebu, the Congress to Davao, the Senate to Baguio so they always have cool heads, keep the President in Manila?
  • Why not have a national language for all, a regional language for every region, with optional languages also accepted cantonally for those who need them?

Accomplish more real unity by accepting diversity instead of fighting it and thereby alienating large parts of the country – like what is happening now. These are ideas worth thinking about.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, Munich, 27. May 2015

The Philippines Today and Tomorrow (with Filipino version)

The Philippines is a country at the crossroads both of international trade routes and historically, at this very moment in time: Philippines
Fallen 44 PNP SAF

with a history that has been told in many different ways by different interest groups,

with a rich identity comprising many ethnic groups, foreign influences and languages,

That is moving forward, yet facing major challenges.

From it come major personalities,

yet its relations to other countries are varied.

Two major events have recently awakened the country. The Mamasapano massacre and the occupation of islands by the Chinese. Moreover, there shall be a presidential election in 2016, one that is seen as crucial for the countries future.  It is in this context that a lot of discussions are taking place – in blogs, in social networks, in political groups, in private groups and more.

Spratly Is since NalGeoMapsIn this context, it is interesting to ask everybody discussing the country: What do you want the Philippines to look like in twenty years? These three extreme examples are to illustrate some directions that are possible:

I. Manila, Cebu and Davao are equally important and rich cities.

An oil pipeline runs from Liguasan Marsh near Mamasapano to Davao refinery, which is directly beside Davao supertanker harbor. Davao is also a center for international security and executive risk management firms, with top specialists for handling hostage situations.

Cebu is an important center for robotics research and marine science.

Manila-based firms handle accounting and legal services internationally.

Philippine Navy bases in Palawan protect the sea lanes. The Philippine Air Force missile and drone command is located in the mountains of Mindoro. Philippine Marines based in Marinduque are ready for any potential invasion. Bangsamoro soldiers enjoy the same respect and have the same loyalty to the country as Scottish highland regiments in the United Kingdom.

II. Mindanao is under Malaysian protection. Palawan and Mindoro are run by the Chinese. The USA has bases in the Visayan Federation while Luzon is left to itself, overpopulated and poor.

III. The country is full of casinos and tourist resorts. More people from developed countries have retired. Palm oil plantations in the Bangsamoro region. Davao and Manila are dangerous and mostly poor, Cebu looks good. 20 million Filipinos work abroad. The difference between rich and poor is even worse than now. Skyways for the rich, shabu for the poor. Manila is mostly flooded.

The next few years will be very crucial in determining where the Philippines will go and what it will become. What is your dream of an ideal Philippines in 2035? I am very curious about this.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 25 May 2015


FILIPINO VERSION: nasa gitna ang Pilipinas ng mga internasyonal na rota ng negosyo, at ngayon mismo nasa sitwasyon na napakahalaga para sa kinabukasan ng sambayanan. Nabubuo pa lang, unti-unti, ang pagsasalaysay tungkol sa kanyang kasaysayan, tulad din ng kanyang pambansang kultura at identity na naimpluwensiyahan ng iba’t-ibang bagay. Umuunlad na, pero marami pang hinaharap na problema. Maraming kilalang mga Pilipino na nagbibigay ng magandang pangalan sa bansa, pero magulo pa ang mga relasyon sa ibang mga bansa.

Dalawang malalaking pangyayari na halos ngayon lang nangyari ang gumising sa bayan. Ang massacre ng Mamasapano at ang okupasyon ng iilang mga isla gawa ng Tsina. At isa pa, may napakahalagang eleksiyon sa 2016, dito mukhang nakataya ang kinabukasan ng bansa. Sa kontekstong ito, maraming usapan – sa mga blog, sa mga social network, sa mga iba’t-ibang kumpulan.

Sa kontesktong ito, nais kong itanong sa lahat na naguusap-usap tungkol sa sambayanan: ano ang nais ninyong maging anyo ng Pilipinas sa 20 na taon? Tatlong halimbawa na medyo sobra ang dating para makita kung ano ang maaring mangyari:

I. Mayaman at maimpluwensiya ang Maynila, Cebu at Davao.

Merong oil pipeline mula sa Ligwasan Marsh doon sa may Mamasapano papuntang Dabaw refinery na katabi lang ng Dabaw supertanker harbor. Ang Dabaw, sentro rin ng mga kumpanyang internasyonal para sa seguridad at executive risk management, marami silang ispesiyalista para sa mga hostage situation.

Ang Cebu ay mahalagang sentro para sa robotics research at agham na pandagat.

Maraming mga kumpanyang galing Maynila na internasyonal na nagbibigay ng mga serbisyo sa accounting at abogasya.

May mga base ang Philippine Navy sa Palawan para ipagtanggol ang mga dinadaanan ng mga barkong dagat. Sa mga bundok ng Mindoro nakatago ang Philippine Air Force missile and drone command. Sa Marinduque naman nakahanda ang Philippine Marines kung saka-sakaling may umatake sa Pilipinas. Ang mga sundalong Bangsamoro, iginagalang at tapat sa sambayanan, tulad ng mga Scottish Highland Regiment ng mga British.

II. Hawak ng Malaysia ang Mindanao. Hawak ng Intsik ang Palawan at Mindoro. May mga US base sa Visayan Federation, pinabayaan na ang Luzon dahil mahirap at sobrang dami ng tao.

III. Puro casino at tourist resort. Mas marami pang mga nag-retire mula sa mga bansang mayaman. May mga palm oil plantation sa Bangsamoro. Ang Dabaw at Maynila, delikado at napakaraming mahirap. 20 million ang nagtatrabaho sa abroad. Mas malaki pa ang agwat ng mayaman at mahirap. Mga skyway para sa mayaman, shabu para sa mahirap. Baha palagi sa Maynila.

Mahalaga ang mga susunod na taon para sa pupuntahan at magiging kinabukasan ng Pilipinas. Ano ang pangarap ninyo para sa Pilipinas pagdating ng 2035? Nais ko sanang mabasa ito.

On Turning 50

I am half a century old now. I was born in a time where color photography just had begun, the Internet was a military project that had just moved to academe, there were no cassette recorders yet, not to start talking about fax machines, answering machines, digital cameras, webpages or smartphones. Germany was divided, the Berlin Wall just 4 years older than me.

The Philippines was an affluent country, the peso was on a par to the Deutsche Mark and the buying power of the peso was higher. President Ferdinand Marcos was voted into office that same year. Young, with a charismatic smile and a beautiful wife, both of them were toted as the Philippine equivalent to JFK and Jackie Kennedy. President Aguinaldo had died a year earlier.

When I was 25, half a lifetime ago, it was 1990. Germany reunified after the wall fell just the year before. The Soviet Union crumbled a year later. Cory Aquino was President of the Philippines, having just survived a number of coup attempts – and having made a State Visit to Germany in Summer of 1989. Ferdinand Marcos had just died in Paoay Hawaii that same year.

When I was 15, it was 1980. F. Marcos was to officially lift Martial Law a year later. Then Vice President George Bush (Sr.) was still to publicly laud F. Marcos for his commitment to democracy.

When I was 35, it was 2000. People Power II was to oust Erap the year after and give Gloria Arroyo the Presidency. The Twin Towers were still standing. The German government had moved back to Berlin two years ago, same year man of the street Gerd Schröder (and Joseph Estrada) were voted into office. Schröder called his snap election in 2005 and lost after proclaiming his win on TV.


2015.. 1965.. 1915: World War I had just began. The Age where Kings and Queens really ruled Europe was coming to an end. The Senate of the Philippines was to be established just a year later by the Jones Autonomy Act. Germans in the Philippines either went home to avoid confiscation of their businesses as enemy aliens, or had become Filipino citizens quickly before that happened.

..1865: Manila was open to world trade for a few years, the Suez Canal would open four years later. Germany was yet to be unified by Bismarck, a year before Gomburza were executed by garrote.

..1815: The galleon trade was all but over. The first Filipino nationalist is a Spanish creole nobleman born in the Philippines who studied in France and was infected by French revolutionary ideas. Austrian Metternich presides over the division of Germany into small fiefdoms while Bavaria keeps the territories given to it by Napoleon.


Even I who grew up with history books at home remember thinking as a youth how long ago everything was, how little it really counted today. It takes experience to know that it does count.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 22 May 2015

Das Leben ist zu kurz für RTL2

Sun Tzu in Filipino Chapter 2

Gawa ng mga pangyayari tungkol sa mga islang isinasakop na ng Tsina, mahalagang pag-aralan kung paano sila mag-isip. Para maging handa.

Tungkol sa Gyera

1 Sabi ni Sun Tzu: sa mga operasyon ng gyera, kung saan may libu-libong mga mabibilis na sasakyan, kasindaming mga sasakyan na matitibay, sandaan-libong mga sundalong protektado na may sapat na supplies para makapamartsa na libu-libong kiChinese MBTs 070324-F-0193C-040lometro, malaki ang gagastusin sa bansa at sa lugar ng labanan, kasama na doon ang mga maliliit na bagay tulad ng pandikit at pintura, pati na rin ang gagastusin para sa sasakyan at proteksiyon. Ito ang dapat alalahanin, magastos talaga ang gyera.

2 Pagdating sa tunay na labanan, kung matagal bago manalo, magiging mapurol at kalawangin ang mga sandata ng mga sundalo at mawawalan sila ng ganang lumaban. Kung pilit mong aatakehin ang isang siyudad na malakas ang depensa, mauubusan ka talaga ng lakas.

3 At isa pa, sa tagal-tagal ng labanan, hindi magiging katumbas ng kakayahan ng bansa ang hirap na dadaanan.

4 Ngayon, kung mapurol na ang mga sandata, ayaw na ng mga sundalong lumaban at ubos na ang pera ng bansa, sasamantalahin itong kahinaan ng ibang mga grupo. Kahit gaano kang katuso, hindi mo na maiiwasan ang talagang mangyayari sa ganitong sitwayson.

5 Kaya kung maaring katangahan minsan ang sobrang pagmamadali sa gyera,
hindi tuso ang masyadong magpatagal dito.

6 Wala pang bansang nakinabang sa sobrang tagal na gyera.

7 Iyong lang talagang nakakaalam sa kasamaan ng gyera ang nakakaintindi kung paano ito magagawa sa paraan na hindi malulugi.

8 Ang magaling na sundalo, hindi dalawang beses humihingi ng pondo, at hindi dalawang beses nagkakarga ng supplies.

9 Kaya magdala ka ng materyales galing sa iyo, pero pakinabangang mo iyong makukuha mo sa kalaban. Hindi mauubusan ng pagkain ang militar sa ganoon.

10 Kung mahirap ang bansa, hihingi ng abuloy sa malayo ang militar. Hirap ng taongbayan ang mangyayari sa ganoon.

11 Sa kabilang panig, kung malapit ang militar, tataas ang mga presyo. Makakasama ito sa sustansiya ng taongbayan.

12 Kapag nakukuhanan ng sustansiya ang taongbayan, mahihirapan ang mga magsasaka.

13,14 Sa ganoon, mawawalan ng gamit ang mga pamamahay ng taongbayan at makakaltasan sila ng malaki sa kita nila, samantalang mauubusan din ang gobyerno ng pera gawa ng kinakailangan ng pondo para ayusin ang mga sandata at sasakyan na masisira.

15 Kaya ang tusong heneral, pinapakinabangan ang kalaban. Mas mahalaga ang bawat pagkain o gamit na makuha sa kalaban kaysa sariling pagkain o gamit.

USNWC Varyag0116 Ngayon, para mapatay ang kalaban, dapat magalit ng husto ang mga sundalo,
at dapat makinabang din sila kapag nanalo.

17 Kaya dapat bigyan ng parangal ang unang mga sundalong makakuha sa sasakyan ng kalaban,
at dapat gamitin agad ang mga ito katabi ng sariling sasakyan.
Ikulong ang mga nahuling sundalo ng kalaban, pero tratuhin sila sa magandang paraan.

18 Ang tawag dito: gamitin ang natalong kalaban para palakasin ang sariling militar.

19 Kaya sa gyera, manalo agad ang dapat atupagin, huwag patagalin ang laban.

20 Kaya dapat malaman na mahalaga ang Heneral para sa kapalaran ng taongbayan.
Sa kanya nagdedepende kung mapayapa o delikado ang kalagayan ng bansa.

Isinalin ni Irineo B. R. Salazar mula sa Ingles, ika-18 ng Mayo, 2015.
Mula sa kinikalalang libro ni Sun Tzu hinggil sa gyera. Bato-bato sa langit, matamaan huwag magalit!

Philippine History Part II – State. Section 2 – Enter America

A luna

General Antonio Luna

The Philippine-American War started in 1898 due to provocations in Manila. It started as a conventional war, with Antonio Luna as its most successful military leader, one whom American generals called “the ablest and most aggressive leader of the Filipino Republic” and “the only general the Filipino army had”. Had, because he did not get along well with President Aguinaldo and was assassinated in 1899. He was the younger brother of famous painter Juan Luna. A close friend of Rizal, Juan Luna had killed his mestiza wife, Paz Pardo de Tavera in Paris but had been acquitted in a 19th-century version of the O.J. Simpson trial. Antonio Luna was as hot-tempered as his brother, nearly getting into a duel with Rizal and challenging a Spanish journalist to a duel about an article.

The war soon turned into a retreat, which in the end was heroically guarded by Gregorio del Pilar, who fought so well that an American officer returned to bury him with full honors and engrave “An Officer and a Gentleman” on his tombstone. Del Pilar was the nephew of famous Filipino Chief Propagandist Marcelo H. del Pilar who wrote under the pen name “Plaridel”. Thus the revolution ate its own children, like so many revolutions in history. Aguinaldo was captured and the Philippine-American war officially ended in 1902, even if the last military leader to surrender was Bikolano Simeon Ola in 1903. General Macario Sakay, a barber who had sworn to not cut his hair until freedom was achieved, declared his own Republic in 1902 and was defeated in 1906.

The Philippine Organic Act that was passed in 1902 was mainly implemented in 1907, when the Philippine Assembly Elections took place. The notion of Filipino citizenship seems to already have existed, because it was questioned for one candidate. The Nacionalista Party, which was for quick independence, won the majority under Sergio Osmeña. The minority Progresista Party which was for gradual independence was led by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, brother of the murdered Paz Pardo de Tavera, wounded by Juan Luna when he came to help.


taft_carabao

Governor Taft on a carabao

American teachers built upon and improved the old Spanish public school system. The University of the Philippines was established in 1908. Older universities like the University of Santo Tomas and Ateneo were of course already there, having been established by religious orders, even if American Jesuits from the Maryland-New York province came to Ateneo in the 1920s. The Philippine Insular Government under the Bureau of Insular Affairs took care of administration. The civil service and the judiciary were reorganized, even if many Spanish laws remain till today.

Manuel Quezon

The Moro rebellion raged from 1901-1913. During this time, the United States managed to achieve full control over the Muslim areas of the Philippines, which the Spanish barely had controlled. In 1916, the the Philippine Autonomy Act was passed and the Philippine Senate took over as the upper house, a function originally held by the US-controlled Philippine Commission.

Manuel Quezon, who had been a resident commissioner of the Philippines from 1909-1916, was President of the Philippine Senate from 1916-1935. He was instrumental in negotiating the Tydings-McDuffie Act which was passed in 1934, giving the Philippines independence within a ten-year period, but also limiting Philippine immigration which in the 1930s became a political issue in the US. There were anti-Filipino riots in California, and laws prohibiting marriage to white women.


There was of course massive Philippine migration to Hawaii. Filipino-Americans became a major group with the United States. Yet the Philippine state was reaching another level of organization. In 1920, the Muslim areas were turned over to the Department of the Interior. The entire Philippines was finally under state control.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 20 May 2015
Part of the Philippine History Series.

Increasing Identification with the State

Jojo Binay

Vice-President Binay

The recent events regarding Vice-President Binay, especially the freezing of his bank accounts, those of his family and associates, have brought forward once again the fight against corruption and the institutions involved. Yet the questions remains: how much does the culture of corruption, even more so the culture of me first, country later still permeat the Philippines. This could be in my humble opinion an attitude that is a holdover from colonial times – especially during indirect rule via Mexico, the state was a foreign body, there to extract natural resources out of the Philippines, use them as a trading post for the galleon trade and get forced labor out of the natives. In such a context, being a Juan Tamad was heroic and rebellious, and I guess being a “Manuel Mandurugas” or “Pedrong Magnanakaw” (my own terms) also had some kind of Robin Hood touch to it. But is that still appropriate nowadays?

Franklin drilon

Senate President Drilon

To what extent do Filipinos STILL see the Philippine State as a foreign body, either to be used for one’s own advantage when one is in power, which is something many Spanish colonial authorities and their local Filipino partners in the principalia liked to do, or to be cheated as much as possible because it is perceived as not caring for the common people anyway? Because as long as Filipinos do not see the state as their own and all Filipinos as fellow citizens, and I mean all honest Filipinos from elite to masses, then all efforts against corruption, cheating the state and taking advantage of it will ultimately be useless, whatever institutions you put up to do the job.


The ruling  Liberal Party has the advantage that it appears to be mainly clean. Could be that its members or their families, being part of the ruling class, benefit a lot from the rising Philippine economy. But this is not a problem because jobs are created – and most especially – value is created. In fact I wonder how it would have been if Binay, instead of giving poor people in Makati allegedly overpriced birthday cakes, had used his money – however he may have gotten it – to make real productive businesses to give them real jobs, even if it were just in environmental protection and recycling. But it seems many in the Philippines know only rent-seeking, not real business ventures.


Bam Aquino

Senator Bam Aquino

To some people, most established political parties look or seem like they do not really want political participation of the masses, which is a reservoir, no a deep well of suspicion and resentment, that populists like Binay – not to mention Erap –  have tapped into in the past. The perception some have is that none of them are truly for inclusive growth and opportunities. So why not elect “other thieves” if at least they give one some of their loot, instead of “nothing” or just more work? But populists only fool the people, they do not truly include them in democratic culture and in long-term wealth creation.

There is a new breed of politicians like Senator Bam Aquino, who is elite of course. But I do see this generation as very hopeful and modern.

Aquino IV is not only a strong supporter of small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) meaning true opportunities for the middle class to be enterpreneurs, true creators of wealth and possible exponents of local economic progress, and not just spenders of what their overseas foreign worker (OFW) relatives earn abroad or what they earn in outsourcing or offshoring firms. He is also involved in citizen participation initiatives like kayanatin.

Because only when more Filipinos start seeing the state as their state which is there for all of them and not only for a ruling class – a process that has in my perception already began and is gaining momentum (see my Civil Society article) will people see the country as an extension of their own homes.

One’s own home, one does not dirty, one does not steal from, one takes care of it properly, one respects it – and chases out all wannabe thieves.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 19 May 2015

Writings about Munich: Alter Südfriedhof

The old South Cemetery of Munich is a place that fascinates me. Just a few minutes from where I live a convenient shortcut to the Isar river as well as other parts of town, it is also a place to find peace of mind amidst great names resting in peace. If I am walking I walk through, if I am on bicycle I respectfully dismount before entering the gates which are open longer in spring and summer.


One tombstone I often pass by because it is between the west and east gates of the cemetery – is that of a Napoleonic officer wounded around 1800 who refused amputation and therefore died. His gravestone is marked with the months and years of the French revolution which were different. Bavaria was an ally of Napoleon and was declared a Kingdom by him, yet managed to somehow convince the Austrian Metternich, who took back many decisions of Napoleon, not to revoke their newfound status. Just like the Allies abolished Prussia in 1947, but spared Bavaria inspite of the fact that Nazism had its beginnings in pleasant Munich. Americans still seem to believe Bavarians are happy, beer-drinking fools in Lederhosen – but no problem it is good for business…

Grab Georg Ohm
Georg Simon Ohm
Josef-von-Fraunhofer-AA-12-Alter-Suedl-Friedhof-GF-25-001
Famous physicist Fraunhofer
Alter Suedfriedhof Senefeldergrab-1
Senefelder (invented lithography)
Grabstein Elias Mauromichalis, Alter Südlicher Friedhof
Greek officer
Or the gravestones of numerous inventors, scientists, architects, artists, engineers and more from the 19th century which was a Golden Age. The newfound Bavarian Kingdom attracted talent. There is even a gravestone of a Greek officer, adjutant of Greece’s first modern king. Greece, lacking its own royalty after centuries of Ottoman rule, did what many European countries did – it imported a German noble. German nobles are about as numerous as datus in Filipino Muslim areas, but King Otto was a Bavarian prince. So more like a relative of the Sultan of Sulu, not just another datu. But he did not manage well.


There is a monument to the 1705 Sendling revolt. Bavarian peasants from the mountains fed up with the levies of the ruling Austrians in the War of Spanish Succession – Habsburgs vs. Bourbons – revolted. They marched toward Munich, but the townspeople who had promised to open the gates refused to do so.  The peasants had to flee and were killed by Hungarian horsemen on a hill nearby. Even the church they fled into was razed. Peasant leaders of the rebellion were publicly executed in the center of Munich, while local politicians and officials who had joined the revolt were mostly jailed and then released. The kings of Bavaria, whose ancestors had looked down upon the peasant revolt, revived the memory of that event in the 19th century for their propaganda.

DenkmalBauernschlacht1705
Monument to 1705
Alter Südfriedhof München 2010-04-24-1753 Alte Südfriedhof München 2010 2 Brunnen im Neuen Suedfriedhof Muenchen-1 It is a good place to contemplate, to know how short our lives are in the context of the centuries, to know what great men have done in their lives before finding their resting place in this beautiful old cemetery. How they contributed to the community in which I live today, and how good leaders made it possible for them to do so. And how politics has always played, human nature being what it is.


Irineo B. R. Salazar, Munich, 18 May 2015