June 2018
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Philippine History Part I – Territory


Main Article: Quo Vadis Philippines?

Next Article: Philippine History Part II – State. Section 1 – Founding Fathers

Balangay Replica Modern scientific tools such as geology, plate tectonics, archaeology, linguistics and genetics are increasing our understanding of Philippine early history. Many old theories – some of which are still taught in Philippine schools – are discredited, while many new theories are not yet fully proven.The territory that became the Philippines rose from the sea sometime in the past due to plate tectonics. The earliest prehistoric finds in the Philippines are Callao Man and Tabon Man. How the Melanesian Agta came to the Philippines is not fully clarified, old theories of land bridges are now seen as obsolete.The majority of Filipinos are of mainly Austronesian descent – the term Malayo-Polynesian being outdated.The Austronesians settled the entire Pacific and the area where the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia are now. Madagascar and South America were also reached by Austronesian sailors. There are two theories of how Austronesians settled the Pacific, the out of Taiwan and Sundaland theories. One way or another, Austronesians already lived in the Philippines in the first millenium B.C.

Trade with India led to Indianized Kingdoms in Southeast Asia starting in the first millenium A.D. There are indications that it had to do with looking for gold or with the blockade of the Silk Route by the Huns. From the 7th to 11th centuries, Sri-Vijaya was a major power ruling from Sumatra, influencing the entire Malay area including the Philippines. The Kingdoms of Butuan and Tondo are evidence of Hindu cultural influence in the Philippines. The Kingdom of Tondo traded with Ming China. There may have been Japanese trading posts in Northern Luzon.

The second large Indianized empire in the Malay world was Majapahit on Java which existed from the 13th to 16th centuries. Yet following the old trade routes from the Orient via the Indian subcontinent, Islamic missionaries arrived in Southeast Asia starting from the 11th century onwards. Brunei became Islamic in the 15th century, during which the Sultanate of Sulu was also founded while that of Maguindanao was founded in the 16th century.

Brunei expanded its power in the late 15th century and established Kota Selurong or Maynila as a colony on the other side of the Pasig River around 1500, making the Kings of Tondo vassals. Other powers were getting interested in the Asian region by that time. The Spice Route was blocked by the newly founded Ottoman empire, forcing Europeans to find new ways, while Portugal and Spain still had a lot of energy from the recently succesful Reconquista. The Portuguese reached Sri Lanka in 1505, Malacca in 1511, Timor, Neu Guinea and Ternate in Indonesia 1512 and cornered the Spice Trade.

The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 divided the world between Spain and Portugal along a line which more or less defines were Brazil ends today and Spanish South America begins. The areas east of that line were reserved for Portugal, which is why Magellan sailed the other way around in 1521. He died in the Philippines but his men reached the Portuguese areas after him. Soon after a war erupted between Spain and Portugal, after which the Treaty of Zaragoza in 1529 made clear the the Moluccas belonged to Portugal and the Philippines belonged to Spain. In 1545, the Potosi silver mine in Bolivia was opened. It was the main source of silver for the galleon trade which started in 1565, even before Legazpi subjugated Manila in 1571. Limahong attacked Manila in 1574 and there was the 1578 war of Spain against Brunei which ended with a decisive Spanish victory, securing their control of the business.

16th century Portuguese Spanish trade routes

The galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco changed many things. Southern Chinese traders came to Manila to trade Oriental goods for Spanish gold and silver. In China, Spanish silver became a major economic factor, especially from the 1750s onward. Charles Mann’s book “1493” shows how most plants in the Filipino song Bahay Kubo are not of native origin. According to that book, Filipino communities existed in Mexico City, with their own Catholic processions. That there was strong Mexican influence on the Philippines has been detailed by many authors. The Dutch entered Southeast Asia and attacked Manila unsuccesfully in 1646, but they did supplant the Portuguese in their areas. The British arrived in Asia starting in the late 18th century, occupying Manila from 1762-1764 and helping Ilokano rebel Diego Silang – and his widow Gabriela – against the Spanish. Yet they were not able to dislodge the Spanish or the galleon trade.

The late 18th century brought upheaval to Europe and America – the United States became independent, the French revolution started, the Napoleonic wars destabilized Spain and led to revolution in many of its colonies including Mexico. The galleon trade thus ended in the early 19th century. The only colonies Spain had left in Latin America were Cuba and Puerto Rico. The Spanish East Indies to which the Philippines belonged, which were ruled from Manila but also included the Marianas and the Caroline Islands among others, now was to be ruled directly from Spain.

Tagalog dress, early 1800s By the early 19th century, the territory of the Philippines and the people living on it were clearly defined. The state apparatus that the colonial government had put in place until then was rudimentary, more about keeping order and getting taxes especially in form of polo y servicio (forced labor) paid. In the pacified areas of the country, Spanish priests and the local principalia took care of most matters by themselves.The beginnings of a state were there, those of a nation were yet to come.Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 10. May 2015 with special thanks to sonny for contributing many inputs and Karl Garcia for constructive feedback.

Part of the Philippine History Series.

35 comments to Philippine History Part I – Territory

  • karlgarcia

    PH and Japan beyond World War II | Inquirer Opinion

    1 year ago
    The ongoing state visit of the Japanese Emperor and Empress is a time to reexamine the long and complex relationship between the Philippines and Japan that was disrupted by the horrors of World War II. The two countries’ historical and cultural relations actually predate the establishment of diplomatic relations on July 23, 1956.

    Many Filipinos are surprised to learn that “halo-halo,” the famous summer cooler of shaved ice, milk and sweetened beans, bananas, etc.—a riot of tastes and colors mixed together—traces its origins to the Japanese shaved-ice treat “kakigori.” Even the childhood game “Jak en Poy,” in which hands form to pit rock, paper and scissors against each other, can be traced to the Japanese “jankenpon.”

    The cultural relations between the Philippines and Japan can also be seen in two everyday Filipino words: “katol,” referring to the green antimosquito coils, came from the Japanese “katorisenko”; and “tansan,” referring to the bottle cap, originated from the bottled Japanese carbonated water sold in the Philippines before World War II under the brand name “Tansan.”

    In 1567, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first governor-general of Spanish Philippines, reported to the King of Spain that Japanese vessels and traders were in the port of Cebu. In 1570, Martin de Goiti reported to Legazpi an encounter with 20 Japanese in the place known as Maynila. Since this was one year before the establishment of Spanish Manila as capital of Filipinas, it is safe to presume that Japanese traders were familiar to Filipinos even before the Spanish conquest.

    Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa, governor-general in 1582, dispatched a Spanish squadron from Manila to drive away Japanese pirates who had established a fort in Cagayan, Northern Luzon, and used it as a base to raid nearby coastal towns. Another Japanese settlement in Agoo conducted a brisk trade in deerskins that alarmed the Spanish, who feared the extinction of deer and banned the export of deer hide in 1598.

    While textbook history makes reference to the Parian, the Chinese ghetto outside Intramuros, not much is known about the Japanese ghetto in Dilao. Filipino students are not taught about the embassy from Hideyoshi that arrived in Manila in 1592 carrying a letter demanding tribute and a threat to invade the Philippines. Governor-General Gomez Perez Dasmariñas responded quickly by dispatching the Dominican friar Juan Cobo as ambassador to Japan; Cobo brought many gifts, including a trained black elephant that amused Hideyoshi and stayed the invasion.

    Unfortunately, Cobo died during his return voyage to Manila, so Dasmariñas dispatched a second ambassador, the Franciscan Pedro Bautista, who brought more impressive gifts that included: a spirited Mexican horse, a Spanish vestido or suit, a big mirror, and a gilded escritorio or writing desk. Hideyoshi reciprocated by extending hospitality to the embassy from Manila with a tour of the palaces of Kyoto, Fushimi and Osaka. Then Hideyoshi ceded land in Kyoto where the Franciscan friars built a small church and leprosarium that attracted many Japanese to convert to Christianity.

    Despite the guarded welcome extended to the embassy in the beginning, Bautista and his companions were the first to suffer martyrdom during the persecution of Christians in Japan. Bautista was the most prominent among those that were crucified in Nagasaki in February 1597 and canonized in 1862, but he is largely forgotten today with the focus on his companions—the first Mexican saint Felipe de Jesus and the first Japanese saint Paul Miki.

    The relations between the Philippines and Japan in the 17th century are a neglected field of historical study. In 1609 Governor-General Rodrigo de Vivero was shipwrecked in Japan en route from Manila to Acapulco. Vivero and many others were rescued by Japanese fishermen in Onjuku, making the Philippines but a footnote in an event that marked the beginning of Mexico-Japan relations. We learn about the galleon trade but do not realize that Japan was in the path of the nautical highway crisscrossed by Spanish galleons that travelled from Manila to Acapulco and back, carrying traders and missionaries in an enterprise that is now considered an early example of globalization.

    An attempt to establish direct relations between Japan and Europe that would bypass Mexico and the Philippines was undertaken by Date Masamune of Sendai, who sent what is now known as the Hasekura mission that sailed from Sendai to Mexico onward to Spain and the Vatican in the years 1613-1620. Although Hasekura was received by the Spanish king in Madrid and the pope in Rome, the mission was a failure. Hasekura’s last stop before his return to Japan was Manila—a transit of two years. It is significant that the only existing manuscript in Hasekura’s hand, now preserved in the Sendai Museum, is a letter written in Manila which was referred to as “Ruson” (Luzon).

    While we should never forget the dreadful pages of history written in the blood of Filipinos during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, we would do well to cast the net further to complete the history of the long cultural relationship between the two countries.

    * * *

    Comments are welcome at


    interesting stuff about killing as a badge of honor, about baklas even then, and about social classes.

  • karlgarcia

    Another good book to scan through the pages.

    Discovery,conquest and early history if the Philippine Islands

  • karlgarcia





    Aviong the many wrongs done the Filipinos by Spaniards, to be
    charged against their undeniably large debt to Spain, one of the greatest,
    if not the most frequently mentioned, was taking frotn them their good

    Spanish writers have never been noted for modesty or historical
    accuracy. Back in 15S9 the printer of the English translation of
    Padre Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza’s “History of the Great and Mighty
    Kingdom of China” felt it necessary to prefix this xvarning:

    * * * the Spaniards (foUomng their ambitious affections) do
    usually iti all their tvritings extoll their oivn actions, even to the setting
    forth of many untruthes and incredible things, as in their descriptions
    of the conquisles of the east and icest Indies, etc., doth more at large
    appear e.

    Of early Spanish historians Doctor Antonio de Morga seems the
    single exception, and perhaps even some of his credit comes by contrast,
    but in later years the rule apparently has proved invariable. As the
    conditions in the succe.’isive periods of Spanish influence were recog-
    nized to be indicative of little progress, if not actually retrogressive, the
    practice grew up of correspondingly lowering the current estimates of
    the capacity of the Filipinos of the conquest, so that always an apparent
    advance appeared. This in the closing period, in order to fabricate
    a sufficient showing for over three centuries of pretended progress, led
    to the practical denial of human attributes to the Filipinos found here
    by Legaspi.

    • I think we have to see how colonialists in general were in the 16th century – not very enlightened.

      The later Spanish period alternated between Absolutist and Liberal governors appointed by their respective kings or queens – Spain also alternated between Liberals and Absolutist (or Carlistas) in the 19th century, like the French alternated between Republicans/Bonapartists/Royalists – or Philippines today between loyalists/liberals.

      One must also remember that the Americans were trying to sell themselves as “the good guys” to parts of the Philippine elite – but some of their writings on Moros were racist as well or even towards Filipinos but in another more modern way… the other extreme are those Filipino nationalists who would want to see every aspect of the old pre-Hispanic system as completely good, indirectly paving the way for Duterte and Binay I think… in the end everything is a point of view around Cha’s elephant.

      • * “According to the constitutional law of the Indies the land and the soil in all colonies were the domain of the king; therefore the encomiendas, which were granted only to discoverers and other men of conspicuous merit, were to be considered not so much as landed estates as public offices. (Compare “Recopilacíon/’ *IV 8, 9, 11.) The encomendero was appointed and sworn (law of 1532) for the express purpose of giving his natives military protection (law of 1552) and of promoting politically and religiously their conversion to civilization (laws of 1509, 1554, 1580). Whoever neglected to do this lost his encomienda (laws of 1536, 1551). It is characteristic that the Spaniards so readily combined the functions of discoverers, pacificators, and founders of settlements; as a matter of fact most of the Indian races were led to civil life, in our sense of the word, by them. In order to prevent extortion no encomendero could own a house in his village or stay there more than one night (law of 1609, 1618). Not even his nearest relatives or his slaves could enter the encomienda (law of 1574, 1550, and often). He was forbidden to maintain any industrial establishment in the encomienda (law of 1621), or to take into his house any of the inhabitants (law of 1528). That the natives were free men, that they
        could not be sold by an encomendero, was recognized in many laws. (“Recopilacíon,” VI, 2, I, II). After the legislation of 1542 some of the natives were the immediate subjects of the king, and the rest dependents attached to the encomiendas. The former paid three-fourths of their taxes to the treasury, and the latter the same proportion to their landlords. The right of holding an encomienda was granted, regularly for two generations, except in New Spain, where, on account of the very unusual services rendered by the conquerors, it was granted for three and even four generations. (Ibid. VI, 11, 14.) During the 18th century many of the families of the landlords died out and their possessions were not again granted. The authorities always interested themselves in the cause of the natives, until at length Charles III abolished the encomiendas.” (W. Roscher (1904) “The Spanish Colonial System,” pp. 4-5.)

        — Charles III was the one who made Song Tua a Spaniard by decree —

        • * “The Indians, upon seeing that wealth excited the rapacity of the encomenderos and soldiers, abandoned the working of the mines, and the religious historians assert that they counseled them to a similar action in order to free them from annoyances. * Nevertheless, according to Colin (who was ‘informed by well-disposed
          natives*), more than 100,000 pesos of gold annually, conservatively stated, was taken from the mines during his time, after eighty years of abandonment. According to a ‘manuscript of a grave person who had lived long in these islands,’ the first tribute of the two provinces of Ilocos and Pangasinan alone amounted to 109,500 pesos. A single encomendero, in 1587, sent 3,000 taheles of gold in the ‘Santa Ana,* which was captured by Cavendish.” (Rizal’s Notes to Antonio de Morga’s SucesoSy 1609, Bl. and Rb., Vol. 16, p. 101.)

          “If this is not sufficient to explain the depopulation of the islands and the abandonment of industry, agriculture and commerce, then add Hhe natives who were executed, those who left their wives and children and fled in disgust to the mountains ^ those who were sold into slavery to pay the taxes levied upon them,* as Fernando de los Rios Coronel says; add to all this what Philip II said in reprimanding Bishop Salazar about ‘natives sold by some encomenderos to others,
          those flogged to death, the women who are crushed to death by their heavy burdens, those who sleep in the fields and there bear and nurse their children and die bitten by poisonous vermin, the many who are executed and left to die of hunger and those who eat poisonous herbs * * * and the mothers who kill their children in bearing them,’ and you will understand how in less than thirty years the population of the Philippines was reduced one-third. We are not saying this: it was said by Caspar de San Agustin, the preeminently anti-Filipino Augustinian, and he confirms it throughout the rest of his work by speaking every moment of the state of neglect in which lay the farms and fields once so flourishing and so well cultivated, the towns thinned that had formerly been inhabited by many leading families!

          “How is it strange, then, that discouragement may have been infused into the spirit of the inhabitants of the Philippines, when in the midst of so many calamities they did not know whether they would see sprout the seed they were planting, whether their field was going to be their grave or their crop would go to feed their
          executioner? What is there strange in it, when we see the pious but impotent friars of that time trying to free their poor parishioners from the tyranny of the encomenderos by advising them to stop work in the mines, to abandon their commerce, to break up their looms, pointing out to them heaven for their whole hope, preparing them for death as their only consolation?* ” — (La Indolencia, — Rizal.)

  • sonny

    Irineo, belated compliments on the graphic above on the Galleon route. Powerful.

    • Many thanks – belated as well. Abangan – my history article on Daang Baluktot (1998-2010) is coming out soon, had to take time to understand those 12 years better.

      But since I was not looking at too much news from the Philippines then, and was not there, comments from those who know more about it are very very welcome.

  • sonny

    Irineo, the Wiki entries for the Majapahit empire, including the entries on the advent of Islam in the Sulu archipelago and Manila has a steady continuity for this time frame. The Laguna copper plate that was dated 900 AD points back to the Sri-Vijaya empire. That it was found in Laguna is either an anomaly or else if truly authentic, says the region was at least visited by the Malays of Sumatra and much much later converted to Islam in the 15th century. The Wiki entry also says the Lumads of the Visayas and the Malays of Luzon were resistant to Islam’s conversion efforts. Your thoughts?

    More currently, the status of Moros and Filipinos at the turn of the 20th century is now being replayed today. The migration and presence of Moros in the rest of the Regions outside of ARMM is such a compelling reason for Moros and Christians to live and treat each other as peaceful Malay brothers, respectful of each other’s religious traditions.

    • The Laguna copperplate is authentic, it points to a number of places along Manila Bay and mentions Tondo. This plus the Chinese Ming Annals which document trading with Tondo, which finally was colonized by Brunei in 1500 with the founding of Kota Seludong = Maynila, show that Tondo was an important center of maritime trade even then. The conversion to Islam by the Lakandula ruling family was only “skin deep” and so that the Bruneians would let them keep part of their power. OK Raja Sulayman of Manila who was one of the Bruneian Malays also very quickly converted to Catholicism when it was clear that the Spanish would rule the place. What is also important is the 1578 Spanish war against Brunei which vastly reduced Muslim influence in the Philippines – just 7 years after founding Spanish Manila. Of course the Internet sources that say that the Visayans gladly allied with the Spanish against Brunei/Muslim influence are to be treated with utmost care – no proofs…

      What I do think is that the entire story of Datu Puti and his colleagues, while it is definitely a legend that cannot be proven, does have some real background – all epic stories even Lam-Ang and Ibalon have. It points to the Visayas as the area where those Datus who did NOT want to become Muslim fled to. But to prove it is another thing. What I definitely see is that even in pre-Islamic times, there were centers of trade and power in Luzon (Tondo), Visayas (Sugbu/Humabon) and Mindanao (Butuan).

      Unearthing what is provably true during the periods of Indianized and Islamic influence is a very hard task. We have to be careful to label indications as such. And always remember who is the source, and that even Philippine histories tend to be like Philippine epics. The achievements and the good things of ones own perceived group are emphasized while the perceived enemies are made to look bad. This can even be seen in different readings of the Aguinaldo-Bonifacio and the Aguinaldo-General Luna conflict, the facts are mostly clear but it is like in the Supreme Court even among professional historians. Different Justices will have different readings depending on whom they favor, just like Philippine media. Now as for Luzon, Indonesians have told me that Tagalog has similarities to Javanese – which matches the evidence of the Laguna copperplate. Ilokano may be similar to Sumatran Batak, but that has to be looked a more closely. Many who speak Bahasa say Ilokano is easy to understand for them. There are indications of Japanese presence on the coast of Cagayan as well that I found. Real Sinicized rulers in the Philippines = Huangs – I do not see any conclusive evidence of, even if there are some strange, obviously Chinese-influenced sources that maintain that Tondo was founded by the Chinese. History and politics always interact, it is often about “who was there first”. That is why I am also very careful with sources that maintain that the whole of Mindanao was Islamic – the evidence points to the present Bangsamoro area and not much more, the rest was probably Lumad. There is a lot of work to be done and even Wiki has to be cross-checked.

      • sonny

        Irineo, I will have to set aside the Laguna copperplate. It has been pointed out that this is a solo artifact with a shaky provenance, e.g. It is not part of an archeological dig. Thus it must be subjected to the strictest of scrutiny. Similar times and circumstances would be a logical path to search through.

        Human tragedy has struck again by way of losing 35 lives on a ferry-sinking in Ormoc, Leyte. This is an important event as part of other maritime tragedies involving inter-island travel. This points to our archipelagic identity. We belong to the greater Malay archipelagic identity. Yet the Philippines must have its own geologic narrative as part of its national inventory, its patrimonious hardware. A true federal conglomerate can address this knowledge and need, its software so to speak. Ormoc waters is typical of many features our country possesses – a deep channel with no significant coastal shelf.

    • sonny

      Karl, mahusay si Hector Santos, a very concerned Filipino. I came across his site a while back, 1998, our country’s centennial. I hope he is still around.

  • zeus a. salazar

    Tila sa Tagalog lang may katagang “sili” bilang pantukoy sa “chili pepper”. Bagamat malakas ang impluwensiya ng Malay sa Tagalog, wala rito ang “lada” na siyang katawagan ng “Chili pepper” sa Malay at sa Javanese din. At, mangyari pa, sa Bikol din.

    • – ayon sa Wikipedia – mukhang matino rin ang source nila kung tignan ang footnote, Portuguese daw ang nagdala ng sili sa Asya. Hindi pa rin tayo nakakasigurado kung saan talaga nagmula ang salitang “sili”, for sure hindi sa Malay o Javanese.

      Chili peppers originated in the Americas.[3] After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used in both food and medicine. Chilies were brought to Asia by Portuguese navigators during the 16th century.

    • i7sharp

      Ginoong Zeus,

      Ano po ang masasabi ninyo tungkol dito:

      And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir,
      brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones.

      Ophir is the Philippines?

      almug is Manila copal, almaciga, or salong?
      : a tall Philippine timber tree (Agathis philippinensis) yielding a hard resin
      : the resin yielded by the almaciga tree : manila copal
      Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rich. et A. Rich.
      Bei qiao shan

      Salamat po.

      • i7sharp

        The list of Ilokano deities below is from Llamzon (1978:38).33

        Buni – God
        Parsua – Creator
        Apo Langit – Lord Heaven (Apo means “Lord”)
        Apo Angin – Lord Wind
        Apo Init – Lord Sun
        Apo Tudo – Lord Rain
        Apo Rickghil – LOrd of the fires and space or kalawakan and a good luck rickghil is from the clan of varilla he poses the inherited power from his ancestors during the ancient times of Philippines at the time of King solomon when the name of Philippines is still called OPHIR


        • We cannot prove or disprove anything about Ophir. There are no definitive records that tell us where this place could have been. At least we now have a few more proofs of Indian influence in the first century A.D., stuff which goes back to the reign of Solomon which probably was around 900 B.C. cannot be proven or disproven at the moment, so I suggest we leave it at that. What recent research is definitely showing is that international trade always existed in a far greater measure than we thought before. And that people knew more about distant lands even in the past than we thought before, but it is important that we look for sufficient proof and for Ophir we do not have it as of now.

  • Yes on early 19th century the liberator liberated Argentina,Peru and Chile. So sa Chile ata nanggaling ang sili.

    For a corny exchange in history (Sonny was serious, I was corny)

  • Moved some old comments from Defining Philippine Culture to here where they are more on-topic – the topic did not exist yet of course when they were written.

  • Maybe someone should edit the Wikipedia article of the Philippines.It mentioned Marikudo and Datu Puti as part of history.Do the honors.

    Yung sili sa Bicol, sa Mexico ba galing yon?

    Re UN peacekeepers: Sa Haiti earthquake, Golan heights, etc.
    Sa Congo tayo una sumabak.

    • When I look at Wikipedia I always double-check the footnotes and other sources. Sometimes not even Wikipedia is fully consistent within itself depending on who does the edits and all. Well if you look at professional historians the same thing – the academic wars about how to interpret certain aspects of history, what to believe more and what to believe less among the different sources can be terrible. Tapos outdated pa ang mga Philippine schoolbooks. I prefer to conserve my take here, it’s enough work.

      Sili sa Bikol could possibly be Mexican. Iyong Legazpi City stopover nang mga galleon bago magpuntang Maynila. Makikita mo naman ang lahing Latin American sa maraming Bikolano – just like the Filipinos on the China Sea coast like Kapampangans and Pangasinenses have obviously more Chinese blood, maybe DNA studies could prove it clearly.

      Marikudo and Datu Puti are a legend, but nearly all legends have a basis in fact, nahaluan lang ng kuwentong kutsero. Tingin ko iyong istoryang iyon is related to the Muslim expansion in Southeast Asia, baka tumakas sila Datu Puti sa mga bagong Muslim rulers. O kaya baka nagkahalo-halo ang iba’t-ibang kuwento, tulad sa Ibalon epic. Just like the old theory of Indonesians coming first is just the Hindu-influenced people, Malays later are the Muslim-influenced, pero iisang lahi lang iyan, Austronesian.

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