Posts Tagged People

The original sin

RPS Rajah Soliman D-66of the Philippines was its datus swearing allegiance to King Felipe II, in exchange for privileges and helping enslave their own people. Power became entitlement without responsibility.

These principalia or native elites evolved into local politicians. There were mestizos, taxed more than natives but outside the barangays, looked down upon by the Spanish as well. These got rich in the 19th century due to business opportunities then. Parts of both mestizo and native elites got powerful in American times. Many of these elites rule even today by the following true principles:

  • I determine what is right
  • My people must serve me
  • I serve those above me

As for supporters of the powerful, many act like beta primates around an alpha. It is basically intimidation, either naked or clothed in different forms. There are few true principles that I see, unlike in the hierarchic cultures of the rest of Asia which have ancient traditions that were never interrupted and deformed as much.

It was no small wonder that those who were fed up with dictatorship in 1986 flocked around a widow, even if she was part of an oligarchic family. Male power seemed to be a bit tainted.

Power entails responsibility for those one has power over. It is not just there to serve oneself. It has it privileges for sure, but in a balanced society they are only the reward for true leadership. Religious beliefs and different systems of government exist to curtail raw power to serve the whole. Making it leadership and not just bossing around. Let us see how things go in these times.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 3. July 2016

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Who are you?

Cheshire Cat appearing (detail)in the Philippines has the connotation of going beyond one’s rights. Do you know who I am? is known as a statement of having a right to something. Pro-Duterte commenters attacked Lourd de Veyra for his somewhat ironic wish list to the President, saying who is he? Junjun Binay said to security guards in Makati – do you know who I am? Philippine culture is high power distance. An article by a Bikolano (link) name Adrian V. Remodo (could be from Oas, Albay to judge by his family name) expresses very directly what I have felt to be Philippine reality for a long time:

From the philosophy of sadiring tawo flows the dialectics of the ideological dakulang tawo and sadit na tawo: as one is born inangkan nin darakulang tawo or the opposite of it. Dakulang tawo is the family of the wealthy, powerful, the landowner, and the educated; the sadit na tawo is the voiceless, the property-less, the descendant of the tumatawo of the landlords. Tumatawo speaks a lot for us here. The dakulang tawo, having amassed great wealth, plays as the real tawo of the society: she is the self, the sadiri, that has attained an identity in the society; the tumatawo  only who shares in the pagkatawo of the dakulang tawo. The sadit na tawo remains an Other, an ibang tawo, and can only speak of selfhood if she becomes a property (by employment or by other means) of the dakulang tawo.

In Germany, dogs get the family names of their owners on their certificates. The statement that you are only somebody if you have wealth and power, or if you are property of the entitled – WOW. Forget all ideas of human rights for those who aren’t defined as anybody anyway. Reminds me of an old detective story with Father Brown who is English. He asks everybody whether someone was there during the time of a murder. Finally he deduces that it was the postman, as the postman is not really seen as a person in the class society of England of those days – and gets his confession.

When the Beatles did not give a private concert to the Marcoses in 1966 (link), they had the worst experience ever and swore never to return to the Philippines: Moments later, a newspaper arrived with the headline “Beatles Snub President”.  After much ruckus, increasingly worried manager Epstein decided to issue a formal apology over Manila television.  As Brian’s apology was being broadcast on TV, the picture mysteriously went off and dead air was transmitted to the viewing public… the Beatles and their aides were kicked, punched, spit on and yelled at with angry epithets. “We treat you like ordinary passenger! Ordinary passenger!”, the airport personnel unsympathetically informed them.  (Strangely, the Beatles aides were all attacked more furiously than the Beatles themselves- the boys were to remember their hapless chauffeur, Alf, getting kicked, bloodied, and pushed down a flight of stairs.).

We treat you like ORDINARY passenger. Yeah sure. Ordinary people deserve to be treated badly. Something the ordinary people see every day when they go to government offices or banks in the Philippines. Now there is some sort of hierarchy everywhere in the world. Even the United States at first had equality only in theory and black slaves in the Southern States. But defining people as being human (tawo) only by virtue of their being property? Or by their being the supporter of this or that politician? Most religions have an idea of intrinsic human value. Do Filipinos have?

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 30 June 2016

 

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True Discipline

USMC-02461is self-discipline and good habits. Japanese schools usually have no janitors. School children clean the school themselves. NO señoritos there.  German chancellor Merkel (link) does her own grocery shopping, dragging a small security contingent to the German equivalent of Kroger’s. “If you have good luck, you meet her on a Friday afternoon at the supermarket buying a bottle of white wine and a fish for dinner for her and her husband,” says Wissmann. “That’s not a show.” These are two very successful countries known for discipline which starts on top. Sense of entitlement, like that of Duterte’s no-longer speaker Panelo (link) is not part of the culture – it is in fact despised. This is I think a major reason for the success of countries like Germany and Japan.

The Philippines is hierarchic. So is Japan. But there are hierarchic countries where entitlement is king. In Russia, I have heard, high military officers sometimes treat non-commissioned officers like servants – to clean their vacation houses for example. The Middle East is very hierarchic and entitled, with European foreign experts at the top of the pecking order and Filipinos struggling within the lower to lower middle rungs, and in the Gulf many natives see it as their entitlement to let all the others work for them. Some have said that Russia is an Emirate where it is cold. This sums up many things. Entitlement does not lead to progress. What cars do the entitled all buy? Mercedes of course, Lexus maybe – Maybach, Porsche, Toyota. Will they ever build anything equivalent? Don’t think so.

What does the Philippines rely on heavily for money? It does not have oil like Russia or the Middle East. It has people. OFWs, BPO. There are those who write that it is the oligarchs of the Philippines who heavily milk the middle class – with high prices for basic services they oligopolize, some say they made the most out of growth.

But could it be that those who clamor the loudest just want to be the new señors? Colonial times corrupted the original Malay culture from hierarchic into merely entitled. Hierarchy is necessary to order society. But those who discipline must be disciplined themselves. At least get up on time. The decadence of entitlement in fact destroys order, as respect for those above is lost. Remember Gloria Arroyo’s expensive dinner (link)? Irony of ironies – it was still-VP Binay who criticized it.

Britain has its royal family, but first of all they can afford them, second they have style – TODAY. Look back in old English history, and you don’t need to watch Game of Thrones.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 18 June 2016

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Those with Feelings

Antonio Novicio Lunaare never slaves – said Heneral Luna who died 117 years ago today at the hands of Aguinaldo’s Kawit Brigade. Now Heneral Luna was an optimist unlike Jose Rizal, who in El Filibusterismo had Simoun say “what if the slaves of today become the tyrants of tomorrow” and in the less-known “The Philippines, A Century Hence” says that Spanish colonialism made many Filipinos into “a race without a mind and without a heart”. Sometimes Heneral Luna is right, sometimes Rizal is, sometimes both. Those lacking in mind and/or heart are predestined for slavery and tyranny.

Whether it is those among the supporters of the outgoing government who cared little for the poor and the problems of disorientation and drugs that they had, as long as the GDP went up, or those among the supporters of the incoming government who care little for summary executions (link) that could also affect innocents. Many of those who went out on the streets in February 1986, or to the demonstrations for murdered Ninoy Aquino before that, were the same middle class that brought Marcos into power – authors confirm this, it was more about the dropping economy.

There was little of a stand for Leni Robredo when Bongbong Marcos alleged cheating, making his allegations seem plausible to those who do not know about Leni’s strong support base – much unlike the recent passion against Keiko Fujimori in Peru. I have known some Filipinos who found the sentimentality of the Philippines of before, still strongly influenced by Spanish sentimentality, simply corny. Not much passion in some – I knew a Filipina who was more on the completely practical side of things, feelings were “sentimiento de mamon” to her. Useless sensitivity.

In fact that Filipina had a similarly “praktikal” (not practical in the English or Spanish sense, more pragmatically amoral) attitude to life as Janet Napoles. Did colonialism and local oppression that went with it and continued as warlordism, human rights abuses and impunity – plus corruption – make so many Filipinos callous, uncaring, dehumanized? So often just shallow materialists?

Duterte said Filipino society is hypocritical (link) – it often is. Being just bad might be “more honest” – if one does not believe in goodness. Goodness is something one feels in oneself and lives.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 5 June 2016

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Dealing with Duterte

Rody dutertemeans dealing with ourselves also. Many things Filipinos and those shaped by Filipino culture do not like about him or like about him is what they are themselves – openly or secretly. Author Jessica Zafra has defined Duterte very clearly as the Filipino id, also called the unconscious by more modern psychologists. Author Ninotchka Rosca has said that Duterte is a mirage – you see what you want to see. Or could it be that he is a psychological inkblot test? Professor of history Xiao Chua has said that one positive effect of Duterte is that he himself curses less now. He is self-aware.

Self-awareness or mindfulness is seen by modern psychologists as the way to true learning. This can apply to people as individuals or as groups I think. When Germany became aware of its own nastiness after the war, true change started. Denial was the first reaction for two decades, until the 68er movement forced the generation of their parents to think about their role in the past. Denial about the major role of the middle class that ousted Marcos in 1986 in putting him in power caused history books to be thin on his era – the almost rise of his son started a painful review.

Yet the classic against Marcos, Primitivo Mijares’ “Conjugal Dictatorship”, has a scene where some politicians who did not like Imelda made ways to watch her on the toilet to have a laugh about her. Hardly better than the male journalists who laughed when Duterte whistled at a female journalist recently – only to be confronted harshly soon after by another female journalist (link):

Pia: So, Sir, you’re saying you were not whistling at Mariz during the time she asked her question?

Duterte: Of course not. That is, ano, objective, or is it subjective? Subjective?

Pia: No, Sir, because she was asking.

Duterte: You are guessing.

Pia: No, no, no, Sir. I’m not guessing. Because she was asking a question, and the question was directed at you, and your reply to her was a whistle. So unless you clarified that you were talking to someone else–

Duterte: I was exasperated by the question. Whistling is not a sexual thing (whistles again, then mumbles)…Wala nang hinto kundi magtanong.

Pia: Sir, for you it might not be sexual, but to others it might. So the world does not revolve around your definition.

Now how often have we who are Filipinos, Pinoys or shaped by the Philippines behaved as if things or the definition of things revolved around our way of seeing them? How self-centered are we? How often are we 100%ers who think our way is the only right one? How often do we act dictatorial? How often do we curse? How often do we care little about how what we do affects the rest of society or nature? How often have we resorted to intimidation, diversion and other tactics including snobbery when we felt superior? Or attacking savagely when we felt inferior for some reason?

Lots of questions. This is not just about Duterte – this is about all of us. Behind the clean facade of centuries of colonialism and after, so many of us have rotted inside – which is very bad because:

Psychologist Robert Gerzon said, “Socrates believed that the purpose of human life was personal and spiritual growth. We are unable to grow toward greater understanding of our true nature unless we take the time to examine and reflect upon our life. Examining our life reveals patterns of behavior. Deeper contemplation yields understanding of the subconscious programming, the powerful mental software that runs our life. Unless we become aware of these patterns, much of our life is unconscious repetition.” (link)

It is known that many alcoholics deny being alcoholics, and only can kick the habit when they realize what they are. Duterte made some people – I know some more – realize they curse too much. Change indeed came for them because they reduced it. Much of what Filipinos do is habit and unconscious, living on auto-pilot. To “become conscious” is equated with embarrassment. WHY?

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 3 June 2016

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Balancing a society

Bell with top balance in the bell tower at Mission Santa Inez, ca.1906 (CHS-4127A)is very hard. The recent movie by Brillante Mendoza about “Ma’ Rosa” highlights this (Variety article). A sari-sari store owner sells shabu on the side, gets caught and her children have to raise money to get her out of the hands of corrupt police. Haven’t watched this movie yet, but many other Mendoza movies like Kinatay, Lola, Serbis and Tirador – so I can call him today’s Lino Brocka. His portrayals of social ills are searingly realistic, and it could be that for all necessary economic and administrative measures, Daang Matuwid did not give enough focus to that aspect of things.

President-elect Duterte has mentioned the issue of poor people selling shabu on the side and police protecting drug lords, I have read some articles as well about sari-sari store owners caught selling shabu, so the stuff is realistic. The Philippines seems to have an issue with drugs. Rapid modernization is probably too much for many, especially those not equipped for the new order of things. I have seen this happen myself in the decades of transition here in Germany with private television, mobile phones, Internet, social media and a more dynamic but also riskier economic order coming. Some people did not adjust that well.

Germany transitioned from the stuffy small town thinking of the Adenauer and Kohl eras to a more modern country, and I am happy about it. But I am also happy that there are still curfews for certain things. Such as curfews for young people with their parents potentially liable, contained in the Federal Law called the Protection of Young Persons Act (link). Even if it is obviously not always implemented as strictly as in the times of Konrad Adenauer, (West) German Chancellor who was Mayor of Cologne before the war. Or even in the times of Chancellor Kohl, son of a mayor.

I am happy about Noise Protection Laws which are a matter for each Federal State, especially on nights were I have to get travel the next day. No loud noise after 10 p.m. or police can even come. Discos and pubs have to stop serving outside even in summer, people have to move inside and they have to implement appropriate noise protection to not disturb neighbors. Especially not those who have to get up very early – like the bus drivers, the factory workers, the bakers, the butchers of the Munich slaughterhouse and the men who move crates in the Munich wholesale market.

Cito Beltran has written that small-town thinking is needed sometimes (link): “Our national epidemic is we have become a nation of self-entitled individuals who demand more than we contribute.“. Certainly small-town thinking helped stabilize Germany after the chaotic 1920s, a false savior named Hitler and the Second World War. The Adenauer era was considered stuffy but people got down to do their work of rebuilding the country – avoiding disorder like in much of Eastern Europe after Communism, or abuses of freedom in the times after Marcos in the Philippines.

Before Willy Brandt – former Governing Mayor of (West) Berlin which is both a City and a Federal State, said “mehr Demokratie wagen” as Chancellor – “dare more democracy“, there was the boring and stuffy Adenauer Era where people got used to a certain self-discipline, internalized it. Kohl reloaded the Adenauer era a little bit, taking back a few excesses of the 1970s, Schröder was a representative of the Spaßgesellschaft (Fun Society) late 90s early noughties, some excesses of which Merkel took back. So it is about finding the right balance. May the Philippines find its own.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 21 May 2016

 

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Naga and Davao

Nuestra Señora de la Porteria Church, Daraga, Albayand their respective candidates represent two types of Filipinos: the villager and the tribesman. This contrast was formed in colonial times. Those who lived in the villages, became Christians and those who were in places outside colonial control. In Bikol these people were called remontados, often fierce and independent bandits. The villagers sometimes called them gentil – Gentiles or non-Christians, and feared them. The pronounced contrast between Rodrigo Duterte and Leni Robredo is an echo of the times that formed the Filipino in these two extremes and all in between.

There are indeed those who have voted Duterte for President and Robredo for Vice-President – I know some. Strange but could it be an instinctive attempt to reconcile that contrast? The Spaniards are gone, the Americans are allies. Nobody forces anyone to be Christian anymore, yet Duterte’s convulsive rejection of “Christian” and “Western” values plus the constant references to 1521 speak a language of their own. His way of dealing with Davao reminds one of a pre-Hispanic raja and his datus, while Robredo’s approach is village-style bayanihan with civic groups.

Almost 150 years ago, there was a mayor who reconciled the two, but as a villager bringing in the tribesmen. Don Higino Templado of Tiwi, Albay: http://templado.blogspot.de/. The three generations before me were all born in that town at the edge of the wilderness. Cararayan, the pleasant or nice place, was their home – just between the old fishing village of Tigbi along the Pacific coast and the purportedly wild hills about which many stories abound, with a road built in those days to connect the two. The village assimilated the wilderness in those days. Now things seem to be reversed.

The wilder attitudes are returning once more. Possibly civilization was only a very thin paint coating for many. Metro Manila is a concrete jungle. Yet the strong numbers of Leni Robredo show that there is a naturally Filipino attitude among many that is not wild and resentful. At the same time NOT as docile or over-domesticated as some nationalists like to paint Christian Filipinos.

Duterte partly tamed the Wild South, but his approach may bring wildness back. Hope Leni Robredo wins as VP, to partly tame that aspect. Civilized behaviour should not be seen as un-Filipino.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, 10 May 2016, München

 

 

 

 

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Ako

Antonio F. Trillanes IVay gawa ng makatang Indonesian na si Chairul Anwar noong umalis siyang galit sa pagbababae ng kanyang ama. Naging tangi itong poem ng mga rebolusyonaryong taga-Indonesia. Salin ko:

Kung panahon ko na
ayokong may maawa
maski ikaw pa

Ayoko ng may sumipsip

Isa lamang akong mabangis na hayop
itiniwalag maski ng sarili kong pangkat

Maski tagusan ng bala ang aking balat
Magagalit pa rin ako’t lulusob

Sugat at lason titiisin ko’t tatakbo
tatakbo

hangga’t sa mawala ang sakit

At mas lalong babaliwalain ko
nais kong mabuhay ng isanglibo pang taon

Heto ang orihinal sa Wikipedia (link):

Kalau sampai waktuku
Kumau tak seorang ‘kan merayu
Tidak juga kau

Tak perlu sedu sedan itu!

Aku ini binatang jalang
Dari kumpulannya terbuang

Biar peluru menembus kulitku
Aku tetap meradang menerjang

Luka dan bisa kubawa berlari
Berlari

Hingga hilang pedih peri

Dan aku akan lebih tidak peduli
Aku mau hidup seribu tahun lagi!

Ingles naman:

If my time has come
I don’t want anyone to beg
Not even you

I don’t need that sniveling!

I’m but a wild animal
Exiled even from his own group

Even if bullets pierce my skin
I will still enrage and attack

Wounds and poison I’ll take running
Running

Until the pain leaves

And I will care even less
I want to live a thousand more years

Isinulat ng makabayan na Cuban na si Jose Marti: “the first duty of a man is to think for himself”. Heto ang tanging motto ng blog kong ito. Sariling isip ng bawat isa ang mahalaga.

Nabasa ni Jose Rizal si tukayong Marti niya: “I want to die facing the sun”. Isinatupad niya ito noong patayin siya. Hindi ako naniniwala sa sinabi ni Duterte na bayot ang takot pumatay,  pero mahalaga ang manindigan, ang maging hindi takot mamatay o harapin ang anumang dapat harapin na walang pagsisisi para maging tunay na matapang.

Duwag sa tingin ko ang karamihan sa mga Dutertista – matapang lang sa Internet o kaya sa grupo. Karamihan sa Pilipino kulang pa rin ang lakas-loob para panindigan ang sariling palagay na hindi nagtatago sa saya ng grupo – may iilang mga dilaw na ganito, karamihan ng Dutertista ganito sa tingin ko, maraming Marcos loyalist na ganito pero may nakilala rin akong mga hindi ganyan.

Mahalaga sa maturity na ibinanggit  ko sa huli kong artikulo ang manindigan kahit kontra ito sa sariling grupo. Kulang ito sa maraming Pilipino, kahit saan. Ang nakikita kong matapang talaga si Senador Trillanes – iniwan niya ang Senate Majority noong galit siya kay Enrile at hindi niya binalikan, sariling paninindigan ang kanyang ipinaglalaban kahit saan at walang kinikilala kahit sino.

Kung isa siyang “ulol na aso” para sa marami, o kaya mabangis na hayop, itiniwalag maski ng sarili niyang pangkat, eh di mabuti. Sana dumami ang katulad niya. Mature na Pilipino.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 7. Mayo 2016

P.S. ang “kau” sa Bahasa “ikaw” sa Tagalog – mukhang sa text language naging mas Malay ulit ang wika ng Pilipino.

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Maturing a people

Abhishek Mistry - A.Bcould be the solution for the Philippines. Co-writer Bill in Oz wrote this: “Children who are never allowed to grow up never grow up.. Such is the case for a majority of Filipinos And it is an educated rich elite that sets this up and it is that elite which benefits from the arrangement”… here in response to a comment by NHerrera: “I am still open to what this core value(s) of the Filipinos are. Might this be the core value: immediate family interest, right or wrong — not religion, not national concerns, no notion of essential logic, no notion of basic arithmetic except when they have to go to the grocery or buy their latest digital gadget or fashionable clothing.” There is a recent article on Duterte in the Manila Times which refers to him as a “boy-man” (link). Some aspects of the conflicts between Roxas and Duterte were remiscent of schoolyard conflicts between a geek and a bully. To some extent President Aquino showed immaturity in his term. But then again is Bongbong Marcos any less a spoiled brat if one goes by those criteria,  maybe even more? The most mature candidate is Leni Robredo – are Filipino men generally less mature?

Guess we are – I include myself at times, even if the demands of Western society forced maturity on me. I could no longer benefit from entitlement I would have had at home, even if I was “only” a child of UP Diliman Campus. My article on “Entitlement and Helplessness” (link) was about how the elite may keep the less fortunate helpless, but are helpless themselves without their helpers. The cruelty of how people laughed at Mar Roxas cooking rice in a cup or falling from a motorbike shows that rage that is felt by so many against the elite, even if he may or may not deserve that rage.

I remember very strongly how President Aquino spoke to the SAF at night after the Mamasapano massacre. He used the word “pag-aaruga sa inyo” – taking care of you, but pag-aruga means taking care in the way a parent takes care of his children, or a landlord takes care of his serfs. It definitely annoyed me and some others like commenter Vicara at Joe America noted this as well. Might have been unintentional – we all are shaped by our upbringing, whether we are Rodrigo Duterte, Mar Roxas, Grace Poe, Miriam Santiago or Jejomar Binay. All from very different milieus.

Mutual respect and tolerance will have to be found between so many different kinds of Filipinos. Civility which Joe America suggested might be a start – one does not have to LIKE one another.

India with 10 times as many languages as the Philippines, deeper ethnic, religious and caste divisions and even more of a gap between rich and poor manages to somehow not only hold together but also succeed as a nation. Even if there are still many difficulties one can read about, they somehow manage. Is it because the British left strong institutions like in Singapore and Malaysia? Even between formerly British Belize and formerly Spanish Honduras, I have been told by someone the difference is huge – the former is orderly the latter loud and chaotic. I sometimes wonder.

Irineo B. R. Salazar, München, 5 May 2016

 

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The Filipino mix, IPs and regionalism

Halo-Halo Specialby Karl Garcia

In Joe America’s blog article Filipino is not a race (link)  He correctly states that Filipino is a nation and being Filipino is a nationality, but what is the race of the Filipino. Joe first mentioned an article by Irineo in this blog:

Irineo wrote an article titled “Being in Filipino” that started with Shakespeare (“to be or not to be”) and wound its way through Europe and across the Pacific to the Philippines where the Game of Thrones emerged from a tribal culture overlaid with the aspirations of conquering Spanish and American overlords (“live and let live“).

He wrote, near the end of his article: “The hardheadedness of many Filipinos might be due to shifting ground they still stand on.”

That struck me as an extraordinary bit of wisdom, particularly as I see my own views hardening as they come under pressure from people who insist I agree with them, lest they slap labels on my forehead meant to diminish me to the stature of a worm slithering through the earth. The more labels they slap on my forehead, the more determined I am not to even listen anymore. I think a Spanish overlord or priest in 1823 might have the same affect on those at the bottom of the formal racially based caste system that existed at the time.

You see, that’s what Irineo did. He sent me directly to get a better reading on “Filipinos“, a word that until now I had interpreted in racial terms. But that is not true, I learned. ‘Filipino’ is not a race just as ‘American’ is not a race. Racial distinctions in the Philippines ended after the Philippine American War when the Spanish caste system, based on race, was eliminated.

“The system was used for tax purposes. Indios paid a base tax, mestizos de sangley paid twice the base tax, sangleys paid four times the base tax, and the blancos or whites (Filipinos, peninsulares, mestizos de español, and tornatrás) paid no tax. Negritos who lived within the colony paid the same tax rate as the indios.” [Wiki]

In this extreme heat with record breaking heat index,we love to eat halo-halo for desert.

In elementary they made it simple first came the Aetas using the land bridges (proven never existed), then the Indonesians, then the Malays thern the Spaniards came. But we learn that even before the Chinese, the Arabs, the Hindus have set foot in our lands. Ten years before Magellan used the Pacific route to discover the Philippines, the Portuguese already set foot on our shores.

So many people from all over has set foot in our islands,no wonder we are a mixed race. Now this can also be called the Filipino mix.

The Filipino genome

National Geographic among others Had this Genographic Project (link), briefly described here:

“Since its launch in 2005, National Geographic’s Genographic Project has used advanced DNA analysis and worked with indigenous communities to help answer fundamental questions about where humans originated and how we came to populate the Earth. Now, cutting-edge technology is enabling us to shine a powerful newlight on our collective past. By participating in the latest phase of this real-time scientific project, you can learn more about yourself than you ever thought possible.”

Based on that genographic project here are the the results for the Filipino Genome:

Native American 2%
Eastern Asia 36%
Southeast Asia & Oceania 53%
Southern Europe 5%
Southern Asia 3%

The reference population is based on people living in the Philippine archipelago. The large Southeast Asia/Oceania component is indicative of some of the earliest settlers of the islands of Southeast Asia some 40,000 years ago, when much of the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagoes were connected to mainland Asia. The East Asia component, in contrast, is associated with the migrants from China and Taiwan who expanded south, spreading Austronesian languages and rice cultivation some 3,000 to 4,000 years ago.

Not only National Geographic has a genome project,here is a youtube video of a paticipipant in a project of Ancestry.com – she is 1/8 Filipina living in the US:

Funny thing is she had zero percent trace if her Irish great grand parents,and was surprised that she had African,Middle Eastern and even Native American among others in her veins.

The Filipino mestizo: the class divide in the age of discrimination

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filipino_mestizo:  Filipino mestizo is a term used in the Philippines to describe people of mixed Filipino and any foreign ancestry. The word mestizo is of Spanish origin, and was originally used in the Americas to only describe people of mixed European and Native American ancestry. In Spanish times it was like this:

  • Negrito: person of pure Aeta ancestry
  • Indio: person of pure Austronesian ancestry
  • Sangley: person of pure Chinese ancestry
  • Mestizo de Sangley: person of mixed Chinese and Austronesian ancestry
  • Mestizo de Bombay: person of mixed Indian and Austronesian ancestry
  • Mestizo de Español: person of mixed Spanish and Austronesian ancestry
  • Tornatrás: person of mixed Spanish, Austronesian and Chinese ancestry
  • Filipino/Insulares: person of pure Spanish descent born in the Philippines
  • Americano: person of Criollo (either pure Spanish blood, or mostly), Castizo (1/4 Native American, 3/4 Spanish) or Mestizo (1/2 Spanish, 1/2 Native American) descent born in Spanish America (“from the Americas”)
  • Peninsulares: person of pure Spanish descent born in Spain (“from the Iberian Peninsula”)

We can all say that we are all mestizos. If in Canada they have the first Nations (link),In US they have the native Americans(link) we have the IPs (link). In Mindanao they are called the Lumads,but elsewhere they are clustered as IPs. We have laws to protect their ancestral domain,their heritage and to prevent their extinction.

In the epicserye Amaya we were given the idea of how they lived during the Pre-Spanish Period. Royalties from Luzon Visayas and Mindanao were shown and of course where there is royalty there are slaves. Take out the supernatural, I believe that is how we lived.

Before the BBL controversy fitst there was the MOA-AD bill, which the SC junked (link). This involves protection the Ancestral domain of the Moros,but what about the lumads. Consultation of Lumads is very important before any Bangsa Moro Bill will be  signed into law.

Languages

From National Identification, Communication and Learning article (link):

Most of the more than 100 languages in the Philippines are linguistically classified as Philippine languages, to which certain languages from Sulawesi also belong. Exceptions are the Spanish creole language Chavacano with around 600.00 speakers – and English.  Northern Philippine languages include Ilokano and Kapampangan; Tagalog, Cebuano and Bikol are Central Philippine languages; Maguindanao and Maranao are Mindanao languages. Some Lumad languages lie outside the main language groups. As of 2000, languages with at least one million speakers were:

IN LUZON:

  • Tagalog with around 26 million speakers
  • Ilokano with around 8 million speakers
  • Kapampangan with around 3 million speakers
  • Pangasinan with around 2.5 million speakers
  • Northern Bikol with around 2.5 million speakers
  • Southern Bikol with around 2 million speakers

IN VISAYAS:

  • Cebuano with around 21 million speakers
  • Hiligaynon with around 7 million speakers
  • Waray-Waray with around 3 million speakers

IN MINDANAO:

  • Maranao with around 2 million speakers
  • Tausug with around 1.8 million speakers
  • Maguindanao with around 1.8 million speakers

Visayan languages and Tagalog are also spoken much in Mindanao. The national language Filipino is based on Tagalog and is spoken by around 45 million of the ca. 100 million Filipinos. Modern Filipino spoken on the streets is strongly influenced by the Filipino spoken in Metro Manila and spread via television and movies. The official language English is spoken by around 60 million Filipinos with varying proficiency, while Spanish has all but disappeared. Filipinos often code-switch between Filipino or their own local language and English.

Regionalism

Since we have many regions, a regionalistic attitude has been displayed through out history. This may be because of our different languages derived from the native tongue of the different places of origin.  Andres Bonifacio from Tondo failed in his revolution because the Caviteño Aguinaldo did not cooperate.

Fast forward to the modern ages. In the US if theyare not your province mate, chances are if you find out they are illegal immigrants you would report them to INS.

In prisons, you have provincemates forming gangs. It may not be thast bad in the recent past, but there is still regionalism. It is unfortunate we need Yolanda type disasasters or EDSA type revolutions to do bayanihan. Bayanihan the only glue we have to prove to the world that we are resilient.

Conclusion

We are Filipinos, no matter what our ancestry maybe, where ever we are, dual citizens or not, we are Filipinos. We stick together when the need arises.

Thank you to Karl Garcia for this article!

Irineo B. R. Salazar, 29 April 2016, München

More readings on the Filipino Genome

https://imphscience.wordpress.com/2011/02/19/y-chromosome-reveals-more-about-the-filipinos/

https://imphscience.wordpress.com/2010/09/20/philippine-mitochondrial-dna-diversity-answers-some-questions-on%C2%A0our%C2%A0origin/

https://imphscience.wordpress.com/2013/09/11/complete-mtdna-genome-of-filipino-ethnolinguistic-groups-reveal-a-philippine-indian-link/

More on similar genome projects

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140429/ncomms4513/full/ncomms4513.html

http://www.ancestry.com/

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